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UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
UFSI REPORTS. 1987; (11):1-10.The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.
The participation of the rural poor in development: releasing the creative energies of rural workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, . 55 p.This booklet provides an overview of the work of the International Labor Office (ILO) in the area of participation and rural development. The failure of many development projects is attributed to a failure to involve the rural poor in such efforts. An alternate approach involves making the poor participants in rather than passive recipients of the development process. The concept of people's participation is understood by the ILO to mean that the poor should have a say in the decsions that affect them, pool their efforts, share risks and responsibilities, and develop their own independent organizations. Specific measures discussed in this booklet that strengthen the particpation of the poor include workers' education activities, participatory training schemes, cooperative institutions, public works programs, and the involvement of women. In addition, the booklet sets forth 6 examples of this approach: betel production in Sri Lanka, Sarilakas ("own strength") in the Philippines, credit for the poor in Bangladesh, a storage cooperative in the Niger, fisherwomen in Brazil, and self-inquiry in Nicaragua.
[Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.
In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
China: long-term development issues and options. The report of a mission sent to China by the World Bank.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. xiii, 183 p. (World Bank Country Economic Report)This report summarizes the conclusions of a World Bank study undertaken in 1984 to identify the key development issues China is expected to face in the next 20 years. Among the areas addressed by chapters in this monograph are agricultural prospects, energy development, spatial issues, international economic strategy, managing industrial technology, human development, mobilizing financial resources, and development management. China's economic prospects are viewed as dependinding upon success in mobilizing and effectively using all available resources, especially people. This in turn will depend on sucess in reforming the system of economic management, including progress in 3 areas: 1) greater use of market regulation to stimulate innovation and efficiency; 2) stronger planning, combining indirect with direct economic control; and 3) modification and extension of social institutions and policies to maintain the fairness in distribution that is basic to socialism in the face of the greater inequality and instability that may result from market regulation and indirect controls. Over the next 2 decades, China can be expected to become a middle-income country. The government has set the goal of quadrupling the gross value of industrial and agricultural output between 1980 and 2000 and increasing per capita income from US$300 to $800. China's size and past emphasis on local self-sufficiency offer opportunities for enormous economic gains through increased specialization and trade among localities. Increased rural-urban migration seems probable and desirable, although an increase in urban services and infrastructure will be required. The expected slow rate of population increase is an important foundation for China's favorable economic growth prospects. On the other hand, it may not be desirable to hold fertility below the replacement level for very long, given the effects this would have on the population's age structure. The increase in the proportion of elderly people will be a serious social issue in the next century, and reforms of the social security system need to be considered.
Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1986. 66 p. (Worldwatch Paper 70)This monograph focuses on developing electric power, the efficient use of electricity, new approaches in rural electrification, and decentralizing generators and institutions. Electric power systems, for a long time considered showpieces of development, now are central to some of the most serious problems 3rd world countries face. Many 3rd world utilities are so deeply in debt that international bailouts may be required to stave off bankruptcy. Financial probles, together with various technical difficulties, have resulted in a serious decline in the reliability of many 3rd world power systems, which may impede industrial growth. At this time the common presumption that developing countries will soon attain the reliable, economical electricity service taken for granted in industrial nations is in doubt. World Bank support of electricity systems grew from $85 million annually in the mid-1950s to $271 million in the mid-1960s, $1400 million in the early 1970s, and $1800 million in the early 1980s. The Bank's support of electrtic power projects has leveled off in recent years and shrunk in proportional terms as lending expanded in other areas. The general trend is toward greater centralization and governmental control of electric power systems. Commercial banks and government supported lending institutions prefer to deal with a strong central authority that has government financial backing yet is outside the day-to-day political process. The World Bank files reveal a consistent push for greater centralization and consolidation of authority whenever questions of the structure of a power system arise. Over the years, the World Bank has gradually becomes stricter in the institutional preconditions it sets for power loans. By the early 1980s, 3rd world countries were using 6 times as much electric power as they had 20 years earlier but compared with industrial nations electricity plays a relatively small role in 3rd world economies. In most developing nations electricity consumption is so low and the potential future uses so great that electricity use continues to expand even when the economy does not. Meeting projected growth in the demand for electricity services will be virtually impossible without substantial efficiency improvements. The cornerstone of any new program is improve efficiency is a pricing system that reflects the true cost of providing power. Rather than a blanket cure for the problems of village life, rural electrification is simply a tool that is appropriate in some cases. Electric cooperatives offer an approach to rural electrification that has worked well in some countries.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Development Programme, Asia and Pacific Programme for Development Training and Communication Planning, 1980. 4 p. (Notes for Project Formulators No. 6; NPF No. 506; UNDP Regional Project RAS/81/111)This paper outlines 4 possible roles that can be performed by an international advisor/consultant. There has been growing skepticism expressed about the effectiveness of such personnel. It is the contention of this paper that this situation in part reflects a lack of understanding on the part of these advisors and consultants as to the role they are to play. When a project work plan calls for the use of an advisor or consultant, these 4 models should be explained to government officials, leading to a definition of what the government actually wants and needs. Then the role required can be carefully explained to candidates during the recruitment process. The purchase of services model implies an expert-for-hire role, with the consultant being called on to perform a specific job such as a feasibility study, the installation of equipment, or the design of a special building. The diagnostic model, also known as the doctor-patient model, calls upon the consultant to diagnose the problem and recommend treatment. Generally this model does not include any transfer of capabilities to the government on how to analyze its own problems in the future. The professional education/training model is focused on the task of human resource development and requires familiarity with training methodology. Finally, the change agent or process consultation model is based on helping the government or agency improve its problem-solving and decision-making capabilities so that reliance on outsiders is eventually decreased. This model is considered most appropriate for longterm advisors. It is noted that it is possible for an advisor to perform the role of more than 1 of these models during the duration of an as assignment.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jan. 13 p.The UN Development Program (UNDP) began a special drive in the mid-1970s to ensure that women would enjoy greater benefits from its programs of technical cooperation. Efforts have increased steadily since 1975 when UNDP's Governing Council declared that "the integration of women in development should be a continuous consideration in the formulation, design, and implementation of UNDP projects and programs." They involve: promotion to create a greater awareness of women's needs and approaches which can meet them effectively; orientation and training to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and monitoring programs of benefit to women; improving the data base to provide better information on women's productive roles; programming to address women's concerns and generate self-sustaining activities, replicable nationally, regionally, and interregionally; and personnel action to increase the number of women professionals within UNDP. A number of projects supported by UNDP are directly benefiting women, especially those in rural and poor urban areas of developing countries. Among other things, these projects are helping to reduce women's workloads; addressing needs for clean water, health care, and education; providing training in basic skills; and helping to develop income-earning potentials. Examples are cited for the countries of Indonesia, Mali, Mexico, Yemen Arab Republic, Nepal, Rwanda, Honduras, Papua New Guinea, Liberia, Bolivia, and the Philippines.
In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 2:63-4.The need to completely rethink the practice of rural development strategy is clear, but the danger lies in restricting the reexamination to merely a fragment of the process--planning--when rural development should be considered in its entirety as a process in which rigid and conventional planning has serious limitations. The issue is not whether some "adaptation" of the classical approach will work, but whether the basic assumptions were meant for rural populations. Actually, practical experience shows that "success" has often been the result of respecting a more natural rural development process in which the following 6 principles have been interwoven: rural development cannot be based on classical planning methods that assume a planning implementation dichotomy; implementation must not be the application of a readymade plan, since planning, execution, and evaluation are a constantly ongoing interacting process; environmental complexity requires an analysis and a detailed dynamic comprehension of the ecological, human, political, economic, and institutional variables affected; the complexity and slow pace of the environment's evolution requires that, from the onset, the intervention occurs in a restricted geographical area over an extended time period of from 10-20 years; the participation of target groups in the implementation and evaluation of activities must depend on their increased participation in the ongoing design of the project; and the comprehensive mobilization of the population requires support from all the local structures (nongovernmental organizations, private sectors, peasant movements) in order to foster self development and a better balance of resources and power. These principles are not without important repercussions for both donor agencies and recipient countries. Recent experiences confirm the need to compromise and adapt the donor's organizational and political restrictions as well as the requirements of the recipient governments. If managing rural development is complex and difficult for a donor agency, it is often equally so for a local technical department. In sum, rural development is a social project involving the transformation of the human, economic, political, ecological, and institutional aspects of the rural society of a specific area. Rural development is an ambitious undertaking, and it has become increasingly evident that rural development is incompatible with classical planning approaches.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 2:60-2.There are 4 major bottlenecks on the Official Development Assistance (ODA) road to a more successful grassroots level developmental approach. These bottlenecks include conceptual and technical complications, administrative or financial complications; and political drawbacks. ODA seems to experience considerable difficulty in understanding or in "digesting" concepts like "participation," "bottom-up planning," and "process approach." These concepts are rarely discussed in detail on high bureaucratic or political levels and are hardly ever translated into policy instructions. Effective grassroots level developmental action basically requires the donor to accept the prevalence of the target group in many respects. This is also an essential element of the process approach. For ODA agencies in particular, the requirements of a process-like approach raise considerable technical complications. Their natural partners in the developing countries are governments and government departments that may hold different views on how to achieve development. Effective poverty alleviation almost automatically leads to political consequences, even in countries where the governments favor the poor. Poverty alleviation means additional support to the poor to allow them access to scarce development resources that would otherwise be taken up by the less deprived. It also requires the organization, the mobilization, and the conscientization of the poor and their supporting agencies to increase their countervailing power. On the homeside of ODA agencies poverty-alleviating activities are often not wholeheartedly welcomed politically for various reasons. Keeping in mind all the complications, the question arises as to whether ODA could still be maneuvered into a position of effective poverty alleviation. Some possible openings are identified. ODA agencies should to their utmost take notice of effective poverty alleviation that already takes place in various parts of the world and not stick too much to their bureaucratic duties and should continue experimenting as seriously as possible. Participatory activities should be prepared as much as possible in close cooperation between donors and recipient counterpart organizations right from the start. An important role of ODA is to launch intensive inservice training programs to increase the professionalism of its field workers. Finally, non-ideal types of participatory approaches should be pursued as long as the ideal remains out of reach.
[Statement by Dr. Pacoal Manuel Mocumbi, Ministry of Health, Chief of the Delegation of Mozambique, given at the International Conference on Population] Intervention du Dr. Pacoal Manuel Mocumbi, Ministre de la Sante, Chef de la Delegation de la republique Populaire du Mozambique a la Conferencie Internacionale de Population-Mexico, 6-13, aout.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 10 p.In this speech the health miniter of Mozambique reviews his country's population situation during the decade since the 1st Population Conference at Bucharest. He emphasizes that in 1975, year of independence for Mozambique, the country had 10.5 million inhabitants, with a low average life expectancy (41.1 years), a high total fertility rate (6.6 children/woman) and a literacy level that was quite low with 93% of the population illiterate. In addition to poor socioeconomic conditions, the country has undergone political and natural disasters (e.g. war and drought) during the past 10 years. At the same time, the population's growth rate has continued to increase. Efforts to improve living standards include giving priority attention to education, health and housing. The adult illiteracy rate has fallen from 93% in 1975 to 72% in 1980. During the same period, a fourfold increase in the number of schools has been achieved. In the health field, primary health care and community participation efforts have succeeded at the implementation of immunization campaings and at the extension of health centers to rural areas. An important argument made here concerns peace as an essential requisite for development and the betterment of living standards. Recognized as serious factors facing developing countries in general, are imported inflation, paternalistic measures and policies, a deterioration of exchange relations, a worsening of taxes, and the balanne of trade deficits. It is in the context of these socioeconomic pressures that population issues become alarming. The government of Mozambique views population problems in the context of overall national development. A number of ongoing research projects for data collection and analysis are mentioned. Finally, the role of international agencies in promoting and financing development efforts is praised.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 2:66-7.UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) experience over the last 20 years suggests that successful development for poor people is not possible without substantial grassroots involvement. This is the experience both in the developing and in industrialized countries. In the 1960s it became increasingly clear to UNICEF that if programs were to succeed with the small and landless farmers and the urban slum dwellers, there was no possibility of finding enough money to meet needs of these people through governmental channels. It was equally clear that in most places the existing patterns of development andeconomic growth would not reach these people until the year 2000 or thereabots. It was this that led UNICEF to adopt its basic services approach in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which implied that the cost of the most needed basic health services, education, and water had to be reduced to manageable limits. At this stage UNICEF began to articulate the imperative of using paraprofessionals, the need for much greater use of technology that was appropriate to rural and slum areas, and the importance of involving the people in this effort. Looking at those low income countries which have managed to achieve longer life expectancy and higher literacy rates, they are all societies which have practiced much more people's participation in economic and social activities than most other countries. These 3 very different societies -- China, South Korea, and Sri Lanka -- all have had a rather unique degree of people's participation in the development process. Grassroots participation in development is a very important element in developing and in industrial countries. 1 example concerns the whole question of proper nutrition practices, the promotion of breastfeeding, and the problem of the infant formula code. It was the people's groups which picked up the research results in the 1960s, which showed that breastfeeding was a better and more nutritious way of feeding children. The 2nd example pertains to the US government recommendation of significant cuts in UNDP and UNICEF, and the refusal of Congress to give in to those cuts. In regard to the developing countries, over the last year it has increasingly become the consensus of international experts that a childrens' health revolutioon is possible. The conclusion was based upon the fact that there were 2 new sets of developments coming together that created this new opportunity: some new technological advances in the development of rural rehydration therapy; and the capacity to communicate with poor people. With the whole emphasis on the basic human needs of the last 10 years, and on primary health care in the last 5 years, literally millions of health auxiliaries and community workers have been trained, a group of people who, if a country can mobilize them, can provide a new form of access.
Chichester, England, John Wiley, 1982. 317 p.This textbook provides basic information on social policies aimes at improving the welfare of the populations in developing countried and assessing the effectiveness of the major social policies which have been applied to the problems of poverty in these countried. The book is an outgrowth of experience gained in teaching a course in social policy and planning at London School of Economics. The focus is on social policied rather than on social planning techniques, and the central theme is that state intervention and the implementation of social policies are a necessary prerequisite for improving the welfare of the inhabitants of 3rd World countried. The chapter defines underdevelopment. It stresses the need for governments to develop social policies in accordance with their needs and resources and to develop policies which will redistribute resources to the most seriously disadvantaged segments of their population. The 2nd chapter defines poverty, describes the basic inequalities in living standards and income which exist in 3rd World countries, and discuss the major theories which have been put forward to explain poverty. The next 5 chapters discuss the problems of population growth, rural and urban development, health, and housing. The various policied which have been formulated to deal with each of these problems are described and compared in regard to their effectiveness. The next chapter discusses social work and the problems associated with the development of social welfare services in developing countries. The final chapter deals with international issues and assesses. The value of bilateral and multilateral aid. Major assumptions underlying the presentation of the material are 1)poverty impedes development, 2)poverty will not disappear without government intervention, 3)economic development by itself cannot reduce poverty, 4)poverty is the result of social factors rather than the result of inadequacies on the part of poor indiciduals, 5)socialpolicies and programs formulated to deal with problems in the developed countries are inappropriate for application in developing countries; 6)social policies must reflect the needs of each country; and 7)social planning should be an interdisciplinary endeavor and should utilize knowledge derived from all the social sciences.