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Towards a strategy for linking women, population growth, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Regional Conference of African Women Leaders, Nairobi, Kenya, February 8-10, 1989. 24 p.There is a pressing need in Africa to achieve a sustainable balance between population, the environment, and a decent standard of living for all the people. If African women are to play a leadership role in this campaign, clear policies must be instituted to improve their access to education, higher earnings, credit, and health and family planning services. Investing to improve opportunities for women can bring the following benefits: since women produce more than half of Africa's food, effective extension programs can make development programs more productive; such an approach will make development programs more responsive to the poor in that most of the poor in Africa are women and their children; investments in female education in particular can improve family well-being; involving women in natural resource management programs can promote more sustainable use of wood, water, and other resources; and access to family planning services can slow population growth. Better life options for young women would also serve to reduce high rates of teen pregnancy. The World Bank has operationalized this awareness into a program aimed at showing what can be achieved by bringing women into the mainstream of social and economic development in Africa. Initially, the Bank is focusing on a few countries in every region of Africa. The World Bank's program includes: 1) country action plans to develop ways to improve Bank lending in several sectors by more effectively including women; 2) preparation of guidelines and identification of project approaches that address women more effectively in macroeconomic and sectoral analyses; 3) program expansions in agricultural extension services and credit for women; 4) program initiatives to improve the productivity of women entrepreneurs in the informal manufacturing, trade, and services sectors; 5) program expansion in primary, secondary, and technical education for girls and adult women; and 6) the Safe Motherhood Initiative aimed at reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 1988 Oct; (188):32.One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.