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  1. 1
    055213

    Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr. [2], 8 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
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  2. 2
    046408

    Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).

    Employers Confederation of the Philippines [ECOP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [29] p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)

    This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.
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  3. 3
    033365

    United Nations Children's Fund: report of the Executive Board (15-26 April 1985).

    UNICEF. Executive Board

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. v, 58 p. (Economic and Social Council Official Records, 1985. Supplement No. 10; E/1985/31; E/ICEF/1985/12)

    The major decisions of the UN Children's Fund Executive Board in their 1985 session were to: approve several new program recommendations and endores a major emergency assistance program for several African countries; approve initiatives to accelerate the implementation of child survival and development actions, particularly towards the goal of achieving universal immunization of children against 6 major childhood diseases by 1990; adopt a comprehensive policy framework for UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) programs concerning women; approve UNICEF revised budget estimates for 1984-85 and budget estimates for 1986-87; and make a number of decisions on ways to improve the administration and the role of the Board. The Board members both reported on and heard evidence of the encouraging results of recent efforts to implement national child survival and development programs. Reports of the successful immunization campaigns in Burkina Faso, Colombia, El Salvador, and Nigeria were welcomed, along with the news that half a million children were saved during the year through the use of oral rehydration therapy. Stronger efforts were encouraged to improve results in the areas of breastfeeding and growth monitoring. Implementation issues in connection with child survival and development actions were a continuing focus of Board attention during the session. The accelerated implementation of child survival and development actions was accorded the highest priority in approving the medium-term plan for 1984-88. The Board also adopted a resolution that sought to draw the attention of world leaders, during their observance of the 40th anniversary of the UN, to the importance of reaffirming their commitment to accelerate the implementation of the child survival and development resolution and realizing universal immunization by 1990. Delegations commended the results of the World Health Organization/UNICEF joint nutrition support program but noted that malnutrition among women and children appeared to be increasing. Water supply and sanitation activities were encouraged, and the Board stressed that those actions should be linked with health and hygiene education. The Board endorsed the report on recent UNICEF activities in Africa. Many delegations spoke in support of the increased aid to Africa. Major emphasis was given to linking emergency responses with ongoing UNICEF programs. The Board approved new multi-year commitments from general resources totalling $303,053,422 for 28 country and interregional programs and noted 32 projects totaling $223,215,000 to be funded from specific-purpose contributions. The Board stressed the importance of ensuring that child survival and development actions were integrated with continuing efforts in other of UNICEF action. The Board approved a commitment of $252,550,443 for the budget for the biennium 1986-87.
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  4. 4
    032626

    Planned Parenthood and Women's Development. Experiences from Africa: Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho and Mauritius.

    Nturibi DN

    Nairobi, Kenya, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Regional Office, 1985. [5], 54 p.

    This report, prepared as part of International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) program, analyzes selected program projects in Kenya, Mauritius, Lesotho, and Ghana. Projects were in the areas of income generation, community service provision, skill training, health education, and community issues. In all, over 40 projects have been assisted in Africa since the PPWD program was begun in 1977. Information on these projects, their activities, impact, and future needs is presented in tabular form. Members of the women's groups described are becoming outspoken advocates of family planning. Those who have limited their family size claimed to have more time to devote to self and family. Groups that have achieved high levels of acceptance of family planning methods attribute their success to the linkage of family planning and maternal-child health, family economics, nutrition, education, and future prospects. Community-based distribution of nonclinical contraceptives is viewed as a logical outgrowth of women's projects, and many group members are willing to be trained as volunteer motivators. In cases where PPWD funding periods have ended, Family Planning Associations have continued to support projects from their own resources. This is an encouraging trend, since the continuation and expansion of PPWD projects depends on groups being helped to become self-reliant, to seek government support for services, to develop strong leadership, and to link up with development plans for their areas. Revolving funds, rather than group grants, should be encouraged to extend the benefits of limited funding to more groups. Overall, the PPWD program has taken in Africa, and demands for expansion and further funding can be anticipated. It is important that the family planning objective remain central in these projects.
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  5. 5
    031467

    [Health costs and financing and the work of WHO] Cout et financement de la sante et activities de l'OMS.

    Mach EP

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):339-50.

    This discussion examines the international responses to issues and problems in the cost and financing of the health sector, focusing on the work of the World Health Organization (WHO). It describes the growth of attention to these concerns beginning in the 1970s, reviews methods and applications of financial analysis in greater detail, and summarizes progress to date and the agenda for work. Emphasis is on the developing countries, for they face the most urgent problems regarding costs and financing, and more attention is directed to their needs for support in this area. By the early 1970s it was clear that progress in health development particularly in the most underprivileged countries was unsatisfactory and that changes were needed if services were to have an appreciable impact on the health problems of developing populations. A major study conducted jointly by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WHO identified several of the critical problems associated with resources. The essential financial concerns requiring attention in connection with primary health service coverage, the need for more equitable distribution of existing resources for health and the priority of resources allocation to peripheral health services were examined in detail by a WHO Study Group on Financing Health Services which met in 1977. Among the problems of health finance, those of the overall lack of funds, the maldistribution of health resources, rising health care costs, and the lack of coordination were found to be particularly important. The Study Group concluded that, despite difficulties, it was possible to collect information of sufficient reliability for planners' needs and at a modest cost, even for the private sector. To help bring this about, it recommended that research centers and universities, in collaboration with national health authorities of their country, devote considerable attention to data collection methods. The reports, studies, and papers prepared at various meetings deal in general with specific aspects of health cost and financing. A major element, and evolving product, of the meetings and studies related to developing countries was a manual on financing health services, originally based on the recommendations of the 1st Study Group meeting. This draft document served as background material for a series of further meetings and was used to guide many of the country financing studies. A number of other health financing manuals were also developed between 1979-81. In its final published form the WHO manual attempts to be relevant to all developing countries. The manual describes health policies and their financial aspects and outlines techniques for data collection. If the recommendations of the 1st Study Group are compared with the achievements recorded thus far, the following facts come to light: many countries have undertaken surveys of health sector financing and resource allocation; increased interest in this subject has been shown by other international organizations; much progress has been made in the development and refinement of methodologies for collecting and using financial data; international activities and country studies have made it possible to provide reports for country leadership; and issues of financial planning and management often appear in medium and longterm plans.
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  6. 6
    031173

    The unwanted child of the United Nations?

    Marshall A

    New Internationalist. 1974 May; (15):31-2.

    This article details and defends the role of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). UN involvement in population activities has come under attack by Marxists, Catholics, and other forces. Although the Fund provides assistance for activities in the area of population, including family planning, it is not an agency for world population control. Establishment of a strong UN role in population assistance has not reduced other forms of development assistance. The UNFPA stresses the need for development decision making at the local level and the link between population and development. Assistance is provided only after a request has been made, and no particular view of either problem or solution is imposed. In the 1st 3 years of operation, funds dispersed by the UNFPA increased 10-fold. The steady increase in requests may reflect distrust on the part of governments for bilateral population aid.
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  7. 7
    030796

    Burma: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
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  8. 8
    267640

    The use of indicators of financial resources in the health sector. L'emploi des indicateurs de ressources financieres dans le secteur de la sante.

    Parker DA

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):450-62.

    This article provides an overview of the application of financial resource indicators in health. The focus is on indicators at the country level, although in certain instances related sub-national indicators are considered as well. 1st the different categories of financial resource indicators are described. The international experience in data collection, and problems of data availability and comparability are reviewed. Although the points addressed are relevant to all countries, the discussion is most applicable to the developing world where health information is limited. Particular attention is given to the design adn use of financial resource indicators in monitoring progress towards the goal of health for all. Finally, the steps that may be taken to increase the contribution of financial resource indicators to the health development process are discussed. Viewed economically, the health sector consists of production and consumption of services which have relatively direct influence on population health status. The different types of resources may be linked to their respective prices to show the financial flows that operate within the health system. The sources and uses of funds are identified. 3 types of financial resource indicators can be identified: health within the national economy, the provision of funds from primary sources and the functional and programmatic uses of funds. The 1st type is concerned with the aggregate availability of funds within the national economy and the fraction of those funds which are allocated to health. The 2nd component relates to the origins of the funds which make up the total health expenditure, under the broad headings of public, private and external sources of health finance. The 3rd type refers to the variety of used to which funds from these sources are put (expressed in terms of function e.g. salaries), program type (e.g. primary health care), or activity (e.g. health education).
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