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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 21 p.This discussion of Ethiopia focuses on: sources of demographic data; population size and age-sex distribution; urbanization; fertility; marital status of the population; mortality and health; rate of natural increase; economic activity and labor force activity rates; food production; education; population policies and programs; and population in development planning. As of 1983, Ethiopia's population was estimated at 33.7 million. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Ethiopia has not yet conducted a population census, however, the 1st population and housing census is planned for 1984. The population is young with children under 15 years of age constituting 45.4% of the total population; 3.5% of the population are aged 65 years and older. The degree of urbanization is very low while the urban growth rate is very high. Most of the country is rural with only 15% of the population living in localities of 2000 or more inhabitants. In 1980-81 the crude birthrate was 46.9/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.9. Of those aged 15 years and older, 69.2% of males and 71.3% of females are married. According to the 1980-81 Demographic Survey the estimates of the levels of mortality were a crude death rate of 18.4/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 144/1000. At this time 45% of the population have access to health services. It is anticipated that 80% of the population will be covered by health care services in 10 years time. Ethiopia is increasing at a very rapid rate of natural increase; the 1980 estimation was 2.9% per annum. Despite the rich endowments in agricultural potential, Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in food production and reamins a net importer of grain. Enrollment at various levels of education is expanding rapidly. There is no official population policy. Financial assistance received from the UN Fund for Population Activities and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund for population programs is shown.
[Togo: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Togo: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, UNFPA, 1983 Feb. 66 p. (Report No. 57)This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Togo in late 1980 includes chapters on the country's geographic, administrative, and cultural background, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and national development policy and population goals; data collection; demographic research and population policy formulation; implementation of policy; external population assistance; and recommendations of the Mission. The population of Togo was estimated at 2.7 million in 1981 and is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are high, and population distribution is very uneven in different regions, with severe pressure on cultivable lands. The country has enjoyed considerable economic growth in the past 2 decades, with the gross national products (GNP) quadrupling in constant dollars from 1960-75. The rate of increase of the GNP was 7% from 1966-70, 5.6% from 1971-75, and about 3% from 1976-80. 3/4 of Togo's inhabitants derive their livelihood from agriculture, but in 1979 they produced only 28% of the GNP. Self-sufficiency in food is not total. Since 1966 Togo has elaborated 4 5-year plans whose orientations were to promote economic independence, the growth of production, reduction in regional disparities, and human development. The demographic variable has not been integrated into general economic and social development policy. The government has adopted a noninterventionist attitude toward population and considers the demographic situation to be fairly satisfactory. The only actions concern control of infant mortality. Some social and economic interventions, such as the priority given to provision of potable water, will inevitably have an impact on population. Togo has a solid infrastructure and qualified and experienced personnel for demographic data collection. The country is planning an ambitious program of demographic data collection and permanent surveillance. Maternal and child health care are provided in nearly 300 centers. About 1/2 of births occur under medical supervision. The national family welfare program provides family health services and information on birth spacing. A secondary school sex education program is under development. Population education is included in out-of-school educational programs. Population communication programs are not very advanced. Among the recommendations of the Mission were that financial aid be given to institutions responsible for demographic data collection and dissemination and to the demographic research unit of the University of Benin.