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  1. 1
    034948

    World plan of action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year: a summarized version.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1976. 43 p.

    This booklet's objective is to bring the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year to a wide audience. The 1st section focuses on national action -- overall national policy, national machinery and national legislation, funding, and minimum objectives to be realized by 1980. The 2nd section covers specific areas for national action: international cooperation and the strengthening of international peace; political participation; education and training; employment and related economic roles; health and nutrition; the family in modern society; population; housing and related facilities; and other social questions. The subsequent 4 sections deal with the following: research, data collection and analysis; mass media; international and regional action; and review and appraisal. A major focus of the Plan is to provide guidelines for national action for the 10-year period up to 1985 which the Generaly Assembly, at its 30th session, proclaimed as the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. Its recommendations are addressed primarily to governments and to all public and private institutions, political parties, employers, trade unions, nongovernmental organizations, women's and youth groups and all other groups, and the mass communication media. Governments are urged to establish short, medium, and longterm targets and objectives to implement the Plan. The following are among the objectives envisaged as a minimum to be achieved by 1980: literacy and civic education should be significantly increased, especially among rural women; coeducational, technical, and vocational training should be available in both industrial and rural areas; equal access at every level of education, including compulsory primary school education, should be ensured; employment opportunities should be increased, unemployment reduced, and discriminatory employment conditions should be eliminated; infrastructural services should be established and increased, where necessary, in both rural and urban areas; legislation should be introduced, where necessary, to ensure women of voting and electoral rights, equal legal capacity, and equal employment opportunities and conditions; there should be more women in policymaking positions locally, nationally, and internationally; more comprehensive measures for health education, sanitation, nutrition, family education, family planning, and other welfare services should be provided; and equal exercise of civil, social, and political rights should be guaranteed.
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  2. 2
    030024

    Population, resources and environment and prospects for socio-economic development.

    Mangahas M

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
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