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  1. 1

    HIV / AIDS and poverty reduction strategies. Policy note.

    Bjorkman H

    New York, New York, UNDP, 2002 Aug. 20 p. (Policy Note)

    UNDP Policy Notes are intended to inform and strengthen the delivery of policy and programme support to countries. This note provides policy guidance on the important challenge of integrating HIV/AIDS priorities into poverty reduction strategies, including Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). Poverty reduction strategies are becoming the main development planning instrument in many countries, determining national priorities and domestic as well as external resource allocation. In the case of HIPC countries, poverty reduction strategies shape the speed of debt relief, and the allocation of debt relief savings. Integrating HIV/AIDS into poverty reduction strategies therefore helps to create the necessary policy and planning environment for a comprehensive, multi-sectoral and adequately funded response to the epidemic. The Policy Note provides a synthesis of cutting-edge thinking on the interface between poverty reduction strategies and efforts to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. It proposes nine policy areas that UNDP and its partners must focus on as a matter of priority. At the core of the Policy Note is a checklist with specific guidance on how to integrate HIV/AIDS into poverty reduction strategies, relevant for all countries regardless of their current HIV prevalence rates. The Note concludes by bringing the discussion to the global level. It recommends that UNDP--in the context of the Millennium Development Goals Campaign--step up its advocacy for placing HIV/AIDS at the centre of the international development agenda, capitalizing and building on its work at country level. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Africa struggles to attain millennium goals.

    Fleshman M

    Africa Recovery. 2003 Oct; 17(3):[12] p..

    Nowhere are the signs more ominous than in sub-Saharan Africa, the world's poorest and least developed region. Africa entered the new millennium with the highest poverty and child mortality rates, and the lowest school enrolment figures in the world. Child mortality rates in Africa changed little during the 1990s, due largely to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which eroded the gains in infant and maternal health made by some countries. Much the same can be said for Africa's primary school enrolments, which rose from a world low of 56 per cent in 1991 to just 59 per cent a decade later. This is also partly a result of HIV/AIDS, which has forced many children, particularly girls, to withdraw from school to care for sick relatives and has reduced families' ability to pay school fees. Conflict, as Mr. Annan noted, is another major obstacle to progress on the MDGs, as education and health services collapse and hundreds of thousands of families flee their communities to become refugees or internally displaced people, and resources are invested in defence instead of development. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Globalization and infectious diseases in women.

    Bellamy C

    Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004 Nov; 10(11):2022-2024.

    Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women’s access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis. One might have thought that by the year 2004, gender myopia would be far less of a factor. For we now know that only by opening up educational, economic, social, and political opportunities for women can the world ensure progress in stabilizing population growth, protecting the environment, and improving human health, starting with the well-being of young children. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    The report of the Commission of Macroeconomics and Health: a summary critical appraisal.

    Sanders D

    SCN News. 2002 Dec; (25):61-63.

    The Report of the CMH (Commission on Macroeconomics and Health) is likely to be influential given the high profile of the Commissioners, the weighty composition of its Working Groups and its endorsement by WHO. Its description of the global health situation and of health systems in poor countries, as well as its key recommendations are strongly reminiscent of the central thrust of the World Bank's influential 1993 Report, "Investing in Health", which also emphasized the point that health is a major input to economic growth, but also studiously avoided any critical engagement with the global macroeconomic architecture that continues to generate economic growth accompanied by deepening inequalities. A decade has elapsed since that influential global health policy document was published and promoted. Yet in poor countries, particularly Africa, poverty has deepened and the health situation has further deteriorated, and health systems and their capacity have declined. It is difficult to avoid asking the question: "Why should things be different this time?" (excerpt)
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