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  1. 1

    Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018: From World Development Indicators.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2018. 91 p.

    he Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Perpetuating power: a response.

    Ortiz Ortega A

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):35-41.

    This paper explores the actors who replaced the agreements about the global development agenda made in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 1994 and the 4th UN World Women's Conference in Beijing in 1995 with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It also surveys the processes which shape and affect the exercise of power, which can lead to radical changes.
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  3. 3

    Investing in the health of Africa's mothers.

    Kimani M

    Africa Renewal. 2008 Jan; 21(4):8-11.

    Pumwani Maternity Hospital, in Nairobi, Kenya, is the largest maternal health centre in East and Central Africa. Located close to Mathare and Korogocho, two of Nairobi's biggest slums, the hospital helps some 27,000 women give birth each year. Most are poor and young, between the ages of 14 and 18. The government-run hospital struggles to provide even the most basic services, since it lacks sufficient resources, equipment and staff. "We told patients to buy their own things because of the shortage of supplies," explains Evelyn Mutio, the former head of the hospital's nursing staff. "We told patients to come with gloves, to buy their own syringes, needles, cotton wool and maternity pads." The Pumwani Maternity Hospital exemplifies the state of the health infrastructure in Africa. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), high service costs, lack of trained staff and supplies, poor transport and patients' insufficient knowledge mean that 60 per cent of mothers in sub-Saharan Africa do not have a health worker present during childbirth. That heightens the risks of complications, contributing to greater maternal and child death and disability. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    The IMF and spending for the MDGs.

    Goldsbrough D; Elberger B

    Poverty in Focus. 2007 Oct; (12):[2] p.

    A major problem facing both the International Monetary Fund and its critics is the limited knowledge about key economic relationships that determine how macroeconomic policies will influence growth and poverty outcomes in a particular country, e.g. how different types of public spending will affect future economic capacity and competitiveness, how private investment might respond to lower fiscal deficits or how long any increase in aid flows will last. What key actors assume about these relationships influences fiscal policies. For example, whether higher aid-financed spending may cause adverse macroeconomic effects of concern for the longer term depends critically on the likely supply response to such spending. If higher aid-financed spending on nontraded goods pushes up the real exchange rate in the short-term-i.e. causes some temporary 'Dutch disease' effects-we should not be too concerned provided the spending improves competitiveness in the longer term. So, the most important challenge facingaid-dependent countries is often not a 'macro' one at all. It is to ensure that additional spending is used effectively, which requires good governance, sound public financial management, and strong sector-level policies. If those are right, the more narrowly 'macro' challenges will be manageable. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Challenges to MDG achievement in low income countries: lessons from Ghana and Honduras.

    Bussolo M; Medvedev D

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Development Economics Prospects Group, 2007 Nov. 20 p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4383)

    This paper summarizes the policy lessons from applications of the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS) model to two low income countries: Ghana and Honduras. Results show that costs of MDGs achievement could reach 10-13 percent of GDP by 2015, although, given the observed low productivity in the provision of social services, significant savings may be realized by improving efficiency. Sources of financing also matter: foreign aid inflows can reduce international competitiveness through real exchange appreciation, while domestic financing can crowd out the private sector and slow poverty reduction. Spending a large share of a fixed budget on growth-enhancing infrastructure may mean sacrificing some human development, even if higher growth is usually associated with lower costs of social services. The pursuit of MDGs increases demand for skills: while this encourages higher educational attainments, in the short term this could lead to increased income inequality and a lower poverty elasticity of growth. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Violence and the Millennium Development Goals [letter]

    Afifi M

    Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1034.

    The association between domestic violence and the first five Millennium Development Goals is bidirectional. Violence has a negative effect on efforts to alleviate poverty (MDG 1), and poverty has been shown to increase the likelihood of violence. Similarly, education, women's empowerment, child mortality, and maternal health are all linked to domestic violence. Simwaka and colleagues discussed the association between women's empowerment and violence against women and poor access and control over resources, and recommended putting gender issues in the African agenda to achieve MDG 5. Hence, monitoring the progress in preventing violence should not be separated from monitoring the development process in developing countries. Other challenges such as discrimination, inequity, extremism, religious fanaticism, human rights violations, and the faded democracy process have hampered efforts to combat violence in these countries. Ammar stated that "Egypt would be able to combat public violence (eg, terrorism) better if it addresses co-occurrence of spousal and child abuse than by changing its school curriculum". Moreover, we will not be able to estimate properly the magnitude of domestic violence if its economic costs are not investigated. Therefore, the growing political will to take action against violence is not enough in itself, especially when women feel that spousal abuse is justified and when judges and lawyers are part of a culture that tolerates violence against women. (full text)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Is trade liberalization of services the best strategy to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals in Latin America? A call for caution.

    San Sebastian M; Hurtig AK; Rasanathan K

    Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Nov; 20(5):341-346.

    In September 2000, at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit, 147 heads of state adopted the Millennium Declaration, with the aim of reflecting their commitment to global development and poverty alleviation. This commitment was summarized in 8 goals, 14 targets, and 48 measurable indicators, which together comprise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be attained by 2015. All of the MDGs contribute to public health, and three are directly health-related: MDGs 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improve maternal health), and 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases). Progress towards these goals has proved difficult. In an attempt to identify practical steps to achieve the MDGs, the UN Development Programme initiated the UN Millennium Project in 2002. This three-year "independent" advisory effort established 13 task forces to identify strategies and means of implementation to achieve each MDG target, and each task force produced a detailed report. A Task Force on Trade was created for MDG 8 to develop a global partnership for development. The mandate of the Task Force on Trade was to explore how the global trading system could be improved to support developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the poorest nations. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa: a macroeconomic monitoring framework.

    Agenor PR; Bayraktar N; Moreira EP; El Aynaoui K

    World Economy. 2006; 29(11):1519-1547.

    3,000 Africans die every day of a mosquito bite. Can you think about that, malaria? That's not acceptable in the 21st century and we can stop it. And water-borne illnesses - dirty water takes another 3,000 lives - children, mothers, sisters . . . If we're to take this issue seriously, and we must, because in 50 years, you know, when they [G-8 Heads of State] look back at this moment . . . they'll talk about what we did or didn't do about this continent bursting into flames. It is the most extraordinary thing to watch people dying three in a bed, two on top and one underneath, as I have seen in Lilongwe, Malawi. I mean, it is an astonishing thing. And it's avoidable. It's an avoidable catastrophe. You saw what happened with the tsunami. You see the outpouring, you see the dramatic pictures. Well, there's a tsunami happening every month in Africa, but it's an avoidable catastrophe. It is not a natural calamity. (author's)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Our children: the key to our common future.

    Stoltenberg J

    Lancet. 2006 Sep 23; 368(9541):1042-1044.

    Children are our best investment. What we do for the world's children, more than anything else we do, forms our legacy as political leaders in the world. Thus, I, as Prime Minister of Norway, call for courageous steps to protect our children, our common future. The new millennium has given mankind unprecedented opportunities. Today we are moving towards a tightly knit global community at an accelerating pace. What we do as individual countries and what we do together will determine the character of this emerging global community, its values, its welfare, and our future. Protecting our children is a moral and political imperative. It is also essential for socioeconomic development. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Helping to achieve the MDGs; Second Committe: Economic and financial.

    UN Chronicle. 2005 Mar-May; 42(1):[6] p..

    Natural disasters devastate many parts of the world, whether they were high-intensity hurricanes battering the Pacific islands or gigantic ocean waves killing thousands in its wake. From strengthening coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic aid to individual countries or regions, to correcting global trade imbalances and promoting information technology for development, the Second Committee worked hard on these issues during the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly. With 2005 marking the start of the ten-year countdown to 2015, the target date for the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim, among others, at halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, the Committee worked towards aligning its objectives with the framework of the MDGs. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Are cost effective interventions enough to achieve the Millennium Development Goals? Money, infrastructure, and information are also vital [editorial]

    Wibulpolprasert S; Tangcharoensathien V; Kanchanachitra C

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 12; 331(7525):1093-1094.

    At a high level forum in Paris this month policy makers are meeting to discuss the financial sustainability and coordination of activities essential for achieving the millennium development goals. Building on other targets set in the 1990s, such as those at the 1990 UN children’s summit, these ambitious goals agreed by 189 countries aim to markedly reduce poverty and hunger and improve education and health throughout the world by 2015. But many less developed countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are falling short of the target to reduce child mortality by 4.4% a year, the rate required to cut deaths among children less than 5 years old by two thirds (from the 1990 level) by 2015. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    The MDGs: building momentum.

    Berg A; Qureshi Z

    Finance and Development. 2005 Sep; 42(3):[9] p..

    With just ten years to go before reaching the international community’s self-imposed deadline for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)— a set of eight objectives incorporating targets for reducing poverty and other sources of human deprivation and promoting sustainable development— progress remains very uneven. China and India, the two countries with the most poor people, have grown rapidly over the past few years. As a result, East Asia has already achieved the goal of halving poverty by 2015, and South Asia is on target. Most other developing regions are also making steady progress. The exception is sub-Saharan Africa, where most countries are off track. Poverty actually increased in the region during 1990–2001. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements 2003.

    United Nations Human Settlements Programme [UN-HABITAT]

    London, England, Earthscan Publications, 2003. xxxiv, 310 p.

    The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 is mainly concerned with the shelter conditions of the majority of the urban poor. It is about how the poor struggle to survive within urban areas, mainly through informal shelter and informal income-generation strategies, and about the inadequacy of both public and market responses to the plight of the urban poor. But the report is also about hope, about building on the foundations of the urban poor’s survival strategies and about what needs to be done by both the public and non-governmental sectors, as well as by the international community, if the goal of adequate shelter for all is to have any relevance for today’s urban youth. (except)
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  14. 14

    We, the women: the United Nations, feminism and economic justice.

    Randriamaro Z

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov. [12] p. (Spotlight No. 2)

    The evidence is mounting: internationally agreed development and human rights goals are not being met. Moreover, civil society organizations and social movements are suffering from ‘conference fatigue’ after years of systematic involvement in the United Nations conference arena. Women’s organizations and international networks are particularly affected. What does this imply for economic justice and women’s engagement with the United Nations (“UN”)? Should the United Nations be reformed, should feminist movements reinvest in UN processes, or is the UN no longer a strategic site through which to pursue economic and gender justice? This paper aims to contribute to this debate, while not pretending to cover all UN mechanisms or processes. Beginning with an overview of the current context and global governance framework, the paper then focuses on four key economic-related UN mechanisms, namely the Millennium Development Goals (“MDGs”), the Financing for Development process (“FfD”), human right treaties including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), and World Conferences. Each of these international norm-setting spaces is assessed for its efficacy as a platform for promoting gender and economic justice, considering the status of the mechanism and the outcomes of women’s participation to date. The paper also discusses the major challenges facing women’s movements in their quest for gender and economic justice though international venues, including the implications of some of the reform proposals put forward in the recently released Cardoso Report on civil society engagement with the UN. It concludes with a call to engage critically with United Nations mechanisms, reclaiming these global policy spaces. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Senegal strives for millennium goals.

    Randle WJ

    Africa Recovery. 2004 Apr; 18(1):[9] p..

    On Senegal's tiny island of Gorée, residents are trying to make several of the objectives in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a reality. A UN-led initiative adopted by the international community in 2000, the MDGs comprise eight specific development targets to be achieved globally by the year 2015, including halving the number of people living in poverty. Located about 20 minutes by boat off the coast of mainland Senegal, Gorée has a population of around 1,500. It was one of the busiest ports during the trans-Atlantic slave trade and is one of Senegal's main tourist attractions. Despite this distinction, Gorée is basically a poor island with few services. Two years ago community residents held a public discussion to develop their vision for the island. Among other things, they projected enrolling in pre-school all children between ages 3 and 5 by 2005 and ensuring that everyone working has "an authorized job," that is, steady employment. They have been making some progress. Thanks to increased parental involvement and some financial donations to help defray school fees, nearly all the island's 200 or so children in the age range are now enrolled. Efforts are under way to create new businesses and help existing ventures, such as restaurants and artistic services that cater to the tourist trade. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Africa struggles to attain millennium goals.

    Fleshman M

    Africa Recovery. 2003 Oct; 17(3):[12] p..

    Nowhere are the signs more ominous than in sub-Saharan Africa, the world's poorest and least developed region. Africa entered the new millennium with the highest poverty and child mortality rates, and the lowest school enrolment figures in the world. Child mortality rates in Africa changed little during the 1990s, due largely to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which eroded the gains in infant and maternal health made by some countries. Much the same can be said for Africa's primary school enrolments, which rose from a world low of 56 per cent in 1991 to just 59 per cent a decade later. This is also partly a result of HIV/AIDS, which has forced many children, particularly girls, to withdraw from school to care for sick relatives and has reduced families' ability to pay school fees. Conflict, as Mr. Annan noted, is another major obstacle to progress on the MDGs, as education and health services collapse and hundreds of thousands of families flee their communities to become refugees or internally displaced people, and resources are invested in defence instead of development. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Globalization and infectious diseases in women.

    Bellamy C

    Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004 Nov; 10(11):2022-2024.

    Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women’s access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis. One might have thought that by the year 2004, gender myopia would be far less of a factor. For we now know that only by opening up educational, economic, social, and political opportunities for women can the world ensure progress in stabilizing population growth, protecting the environment, and improving human health, starting with the well-being of young children. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    The challenge of the macro economic environment for ICPD promises.

    Women in Development Europe [WIDE]

    Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):88-9.

    Women in Development Europe (WIDE) is concerned that the international community has failed to promote women's reproductive rights by fostering the empowerment of women through creation of appropriate macroeconomic policy as a prelude to developing appropriate economic conditions. Therefore, WIDE intends to critique the Cairo+5 review process to reveal that the agreements reached at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo have yet to be incorporated into international macroeconomic agreements. Instead, the major shift in international relations has been towards free trade and implementation of World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. WIDE is demanding that international trade agreements comply with agreements reached at UN world conferences and that international trade agreements and the WTO include a gender analysis. During the May 1998 WTO ministerial meeting, WIDE participated in an informal working group that issued a statement on the link between trade expansion and women's rights. This statement pointed out that trade liberalization often exploits women workers who are paid low wages in labor intensive settings characterized by low standards of health and safety. These workers have no right to unionize and are constantly exposed to sexual harassment and invasion of their privacy.
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  19. 19

    The politics of inclusion and exclusion: fortress Europe and the reproductive rights agenda.

    Keysers L

    Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):18-24.

    This article examines the 5-year review process for implementation in Europe of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). After an introductory section that explores the context in which these goals must be achieved, the article explains how the international women's lobby was able to frame the population agenda in terms of reproductive health and women's empowerment and notes that implementation of this agenda will be challenged by cultural biases, state systems, and the market place. Next, the article gives a few examples of contradictions and gaps as reproductive health is fostered in a "population" context in developing countries and notes that Europe must acknowledge such contradictions and use them to inform funding priorities and conditions. After calling for European activists and policy-makers to analyze "domestic" population problems and differential treatment of the poor, unwanted, and excluded, the article points out that feminists must support women's rights to reproductive self-determination and safety. The next section discusses how Europe fits into the ICPD agenda as a donor and questions European population policies, especially as they reflect immigration biases. After outlining an activist agenda that includes monitoring implementation of the reproductive health/rights agenda, monitoring development cooperation, and addressing the policies of inclusion/exclusion, the article ends by identifying clusters of priorities and actions for implementing a proposed European agenda for reproductive health/rights.
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  20. 20

    The United Nations Decade for Women and beyond.

    Moghadam VM

    In: Women in the Third World: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. New York, New York, Garland Publishing, 1998. 477-85. (Garland Reference Library of Social Science Vol. 760)

    After an introduction that describes the UN Decade for Women (1976-85) as a catalyst to development of the global women's movement, this essay reviews the legal instruments and world conferences that led up to the Decade for Women. Selected conventions of concern to women from 1949 are tabulated to illustrate the number of ratifications received as of September 1993, and eight milestones in the UN effort to advance women are listed. The discussion then focuses on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, on the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies, and on the Fourth World Conference on Women and its Platform for Action. The next section of the essay describes the feminist networking that has flourished since the first women's conference in 1975 and received enough encouragement at the second conference in 1985 to spawn a global feminist movement. The essay continues with a review of the status of academic research into gender issues and of shifting policy in the UN system and other donor agencies as a result of adoption of a "Women in Development" approach. The essay then reviews the UN's 1994 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development to illuminate the role of women in a changing global economy and covers UN publications that seek to explicate women's positions in various regions in the 1990s. The essay concludes that the UN Decade for Women helped create common ground between activists in the North and the South, fostered networking, legitimized activities to promote women's rights, and inspired the UN to take action to advance women within its system.
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  21. 21

    The role of the World Bank in shaping third world population policy.

    Sai FT; Chester LA

    In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. New York, New York/London, England, Praeger, 1990. 179-91.

    The primary role of the World Bank is to assist Third World governments in the economic and social development process. Given the World Bank's view that reductions in fertility and mortality will lead to improvements in productivity, GNP growth, and maternal-child health, its population activities are focused on encouraging governments to adopt fertility decline as a national development objective and on providing loans for implementing population programs. The Bank's sector work, including country economic reports and population sector analyses, has been most ambitious in countries where there was no population policy or program, especially sub-Saharan African countries. Even in pronatalist countries, this sector work has been instrumental in leading to an open discussion of population issues. In other countries, such as Indonesia, the Bank's population sector work has been instrumental in helping governments to develop and implement a population program. Through the World Bank's access to the highest levels of government and its links to a wide range of ministries, it is in a position to influence governments by providing information about the seriousness of the population problem. In Africa, this type of dialogue has been facilitated through a series of regional senior policy and management-level seminars. The Bank is further able to shape policy development through its involvement in project identification and implementation. In recent years, Bank-funded projects have placed greater emphasis on management, institution building, demand-generation activities, and involvement of the private sector in service delivery. In the area of research, the Bank's current priority is the internal efficiency of alternative policy and program strategies. Evaluations have identified the policy dealogue that links population issues with other aspects of development as the World Bank's most effective role.
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  22. 22


    De la Madrid Hurtado M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 108.

    Mexico's population policy is based on the concept of the inter-relationship between population and development, with the aim being to improve the overall welfare of the people. Population control must be approached qualitatively rather than quantitatively, however. The most important unit for analysis and consideration of population control efforts is not the individual, but rather the family and the community. The Government of Mexico has sought to integrate population into all aspects of development policy and social change. In accord with this strategy, population programs comprise activities in all spheres of social and economic life and receive priority in areas such as population education, family planning, integrated development of the family, population growth and distribution, integration of women into development, development of indigenous groups, and research on population trends and development. To be effective, this approach requires the active participation and collaboration of all sectors of society, including government, workers, the community, academicians, and service organizations. To implement this strategy, a National Population Council was established in 1974 to assume responsibility for national demographic planning.
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  23. 23


    Lamrani K

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 111-2.

    The 1974 World Population Conference called for the establishment of a world economic order based on equality and respect for the independence and sovereignty of every nation. This aspiration has been thwarted by the deadlock in the North-South dialogue, aggravation of the Third World debt, alarming increases in arms expenditures, and the continuous decrease in aid allocated to development in the Third World. The unequal relations between developed and developing countries continue to foster a lack of balance between population density and the concentration of wealth. There is thus a need to renew commitment to a new international order. In this spirit, it will be possible to reduce tension among blocs and to enable the international community to establish economic relations based on principles of justice and mutual interest, especially in terms of prices of industrial goods and raw materials. Until there is a more equitable distribution of wealth in the world, the welfare of the entire human race will be jeopardized. Thus, Morocco reaffirms the necessity of forming a comprehensive, effective policy to fight poverty and improve the standard of living of the world's peoples. Morocco believes that successful population policies will have to be humane, balanced, and integrated in the framework of a comprehensive world plan of action that respects national sovereignty and human rights.
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  24. 24


    Sodnom D

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 109-10.

    The fundamental concern of every society must be the right of people to work, to participate actively in productive and social life, and to improve their material and spiritual circumstances. This principle forms the basis of the population policy of the People's Republic of Mongolia. Toward this end, the government has carried out a cultural revolution to overcome the backwardness left behind by the previous feudal-theocratic regime and has created a modern system of health care, education, and social security based on the dynamic development of the country's economy. Among the country's goals for the year 2000 are a general plan for the development and deployment of labor and material resources; programs for food and agriculture, rational energy use, housing, and manpower allocation; and programs for scientific and technical progress. Increasing the size of the population remains a central focus of Mongolia's population policy. Imperialist economic policies and the consequent hunger, malnutrition, and poverty are the main obstacles to development in poor countries--not overpopulation. Despite successes in increasing life expectancy, improving school attendance rates, and increasing per capita income and social consumption, Mongolia has faced several problems in recent years. The increasingly young population has required large expenditures for social needs; in addition, industrialization and consequent urbanization have produced labor shortages in agriculture. The fact that the population is scattered over such a wide area creates obstacles for cultural and educational work. Mongolia is in full support of United Nations population activities aimed at removing obstacles to solving the problems of developing countries and views ensuring peace and security as a necessary 1st step.
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  25. 25

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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