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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2018. 91 p.he Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.
The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.
International Journal of Health Services. 2013; 43(2):337-61.We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Development Economics Prospects Group, 2007 Nov. 20 p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4383)This paper summarizes the policy lessons from applications of the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS) model to two low income countries: Ghana and Honduras. Results show that costs of MDGs achievement could reach 10-13 percent of GDP by 2015, although, given the observed low productivity in the provision of social services, significant savings may be realized by improving efficiency. Sources of financing also matter: foreign aid inflows can reduce international competitiveness through real exchange appreciation, while domestic financing can crowd out the private sector and slow poverty reduction. Spending a large share of a fixed budget on growth-enhancing infrastructure may mean sacrificing some human development, even if higher growth is usually associated with lower costs of social services. The pursuit of MDGs increases demand for skills: while this encourages higher educational attainments, in the short term this could lead to increased income inequality and a lower poverty elasticity of growth. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):338.The context for this theme collection is the publication of the report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health. The report of the Commission -- instigated by WHO's World Health Assembly in 2003 -- was an attempt to gather all the stakeholders involved to analyse the relationship between intellectual property rights, innovation and public health, with a particular focus on the question of funding and incentive mechanisms for the creation of new medicines, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to tackle diseases disproportionately affecting developing countries. In reality, generating a common analysis in the face of the divergent perspectives of stakeholders, and indeed of the Commission, presented a challenge. As in many fields -- not least in public health -- the evidence base is insufficient and contested. Even when the evidence is reasonably clear, its significance, or the appropriate conclusions to be drawn from it, may be interpreted very differently according to the viewpoint of the observer. (excerpt)
Economic drought strangles African recovery: Assembly calls for increased aid, debt relief - UN General Assembly - includes interview with Stephen Lewis, Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations.
UN Chronicle. 1988 Mar; 25(1): p..Despite courageous internal reform by African Governments since 1986, spiralling debt, cuts in foreign aid and the crash of commodity prices threaten to exacerbate the ongoing African economic crisis, devastating millions of people across the continent. "The economic crisis now facing Africa can exact a toll every bit as deadly as the drought (of 1983-1985)," Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar reported to the forty-second General Assembly in October 1987. The situation has deteriorated, he said, since the Assembly adopted the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, at a special session of the General Assembly in May 1986. His report examines conditions in Africa one year after the adoption of the Programme, under which African Governments agreed to adjust internal policies, and the international community pledged to increase aid and improve terms of trade. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov.  p. (Spotlight No. 2)The evidence is mounting: internationally agreed development and human rights goals are not being met. Moreover, civil society organizations and social movements are suffering from ‘conference fatigue’ after years of systematic involvement in the United Nations conference arena. Women’s organizations and international networks are particularly affected. What does this imply for economic justice and women’s engagement with the United Nations (“UN”)? Should the United Nations be reformed, should feminist movements reinvest in UN processes, or is the UN no longer a strategic site through which to pursue economic and gender justice? This paper aims to contribute to this debate, while not pretending to cover all UN mechanisms or processes. Beginning with an overview of the current context and global governance framework, the paper then focuses on four key economic-related UN mechanisms, namely the Millennium Development Goals (“MDGs”), the Financing for Development process (“FfD”), human right treaties including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), and World Conferences. Each of these international norm-setting spaces is assessed for its efficacy as a platform for promoting gender and economic justice, considering the status of the mechanism and the outcomes of women’s participation to date. The paper also discusses the major challenges facing women’s movements in their quest for gender and economic justice though international venues, including the implications of some of the reform proposals put forward in the recently released Cardoso Report on civil society engagement with the UN. It concludes with a call to engage critically with United Nations mechanisms, reclaiming these global policy spaces. (excerpt)
Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.
[Unpublished] 1988 Apr. , 8 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
Washington, D.C., United States Agency for International Development, 1990 Jul. x, 21 p. (A.I.D. Program Evaluation Discussion Paper No. 31)This report examines the critical issues involved in continued donor support for development finance institutions (DFI) based on a review of donor experience and explores the effectiveness of DFI as "intermediaries for targeting credit to priority sectors, the long-term sustainability of DFI in developing countries and the contribution of DFI to the development of financial markets." The key question is whether DFI can mobilize local resources and supply long-term credit to priority groups in developing countries. This report is based on the work of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development which established an Expert Group on AID Evaluation representing 9 major donors and covering the period from 1975 to the late 1980's. Despite several examples of DFI programs positively affecting credit availability and private sector growth (Korea, Pakistan, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Tanzania) the consensus was the DFI reach very few target groups because of: 1) eligibility requirements to get credit; 2) transaction costs of credit; and 3) interest rates charged to sub-borrowers. DFI have not become sustainable intermediaries because of poor financial performance due to: 1) the inability of DFI to mobilize domestic savings and to operate as "full-fledged" financial institutions; 2) restrictions and prohibitions (interest rate ceilings and legal/contractual prohibitions) making them specialized as opposed to a decentralized operation; and 3) a management capability that cannot compete in a "complex economic environment." Lastly, DFI have been unable to contribute to financial market developments in developing countries due to financial policy measures limiting DFI from offering new financial services. Changes should be directed at donors that could increase the efficiency and performance of DFI in the future.
In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. New York, New York/London, England, Praeger, 1990. 179-91.The primary role of the World Bank is to assist Third World governments in the economic and social development process. Given the World Bank's view that reductions in fertility and mortality will lead to improvements in productivity, GNP growth, and maternal-child health, its population activities are focused on encouraging governments to adopt fertility decline as a national development objective and on providing loans for implementing population programs. The Bank's sector work, including country economic reports and population sector analyses, has been most ambitious in countries where there was no population policy or program, especially sub-Saharan African countries. Even in pronatalist countries, this sector work has been instrumental in leading to an open discussion of population issues. In other countries, such as Indonesia, the Bank's population sector work has been instrumental in helping governments to develop and implement a population program. Through the World Bank's access to the highest levels of government and its links to a wide range of ministries, it is in a position to influence governments by providing information about the seriousness of the population problem. In Africa, this type of dialogue has been facilitated through a series of regional senior policy and management-level seminars. The Bank is further able to shape policy development through its involvement in project identification and implementation. In recent years, Bank-funded projects have placed greater emphasis on management, institution building, demand-generation activities, and involvement of the private sector in service delivery. In the area of research, the Bank's current priority is the internal efficiency of alternative policy and program strategies. Evaluations have identified the policy dealogue that links population issues with other aspects of development as the World Bank's most effective role.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. Published in Roberts, Godfrey, Population policy: contemporary issues. New York, Praeger, 1990, pp. 179-192. 18 p.While the World Bank's primary role is to assist Third World countries with social and economic development, the Bank is firmly committed to the view that intervention to reduce the rate of population growth is both a desirable and feasible component of national development policy. Toward this end, the World Bank's population activities have focused on increasing government commitment to, and developing a policy framework for, fertility declines as a national development objective. This paper discusses the role of each of the strategies the World Bank uses to meet its objective, specifically 1) economic and sector work to examine the population situation in depth and to identify issues and program opportunities; 2) policy dialogue with governments on population issues such as the potential impact of rapid population growth on development and the role lower birth rates can play in improving maternal-child health; 3) lending for population and health to help extend voluntary family planning services, often by developing and expanding primary health care; 4) analysis and research to improve understanding of the links between population growth and development; and 5) cooperation in international efforts to improve understanding of population issues and encourage consensus on policy issues. By adjusting its approach to each country's setting, the World Bank seeks to maximize its influence on policy development at different levels.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xi, 850 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2.)The purpose of this 14th edition of the INVENTORY is to show, at a glance, by country, internationally-assisted projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and non-governmental and other agencies and organizations during the reporting period. The time frame for this edition is for projects carried out during the period from 1 January 1986 through 30 June 1987. Whenever possible, projects that may have been funded prior to 1986 and that were still being carried out in 1986/1987 are shown. The entry for each country includes 1) demographic facts, 2) government's views regarding population, and 3) assistance organized by type of organization. The basic source of demographic data for individual countries is the "World Population Prospects, Estimates and Projections As Assessed in 1984," United Nations, New York, 1986, except for some island countries and/or territories for which no updated information was available and information was provided from other sources. The basic sources of information for the government's views regarding population is the Population Division and its publication, POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: THE CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND SELECTED TERRITORIES, 1985. The dollar value of projects or total country program is given where such figures were available.
Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).
[Unpublished] 1987.  p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xi, 477 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 1.)This is the 5th edition of the GUIDE to be published. A new edition is issued every 3 years. The GUIDE was mandated by the World Population Plan of Action, adopted by consensus at the World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Romania, in August 1974. Each entry for an organization describes its mandates, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is provided, types of support activities which can be provided, restrictions on types of assistance, channels of assistance, how to apply for assistance, monitoring and evaluation of programs, reporting requirements, and address, of organization. International population assistance is broadly construed as 1) direct financial grants or loans to governments or national and non-governmental organizations within developing countries; 2) indirect grants for commodities, equipment, or vehicles; and 3) technical assistance training programs, expert and advisory services, and information programs. To gather information for this edition of the GUIDE, a questionnaire was sent to more than 350 multilateral, regional, bilateral, non-governmental, university, research agencies, organizations, and institutions throughout the world.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
New York, New York, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1988. 21 p.Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), the international division of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), was established in 1971 to respond to family planning assistance needs of non-governmental organizations and government institutions in developing nations. FPIA generally met or surpassed its planned performance in 3 key areas (number of active projects, number of countries with active projects, and number of contraceptive clients). Beginning in the spring of 1987, because of PPFA/FPIA's refusal to accept the Mexico City anti-abortion clause in a new Agency for International Development (AID) cooperative agreement, AID began delaying approvals for those projects with projected end dates beyond 31 December 1987, the end date of the current cooperative agreement. During 1987, FPIA obligated a total of $5,119,343 in subgrant funds, or 75.4% of the planned $6,706,126 objective. The 1987 planned objective was to make 72% of all subgrant obligations in 10 priority countries, but actual obligations to these countries accounted for 66.5% of all project obligations. FPIA surpassed its planned performance in 3 key areas (number of countries receiving FPIA-supplied commodities, distribution of oral contraceptives, and distribution of condoms). The strategic plan called for FPIA to provide a maximum of 1666 days of technical assistance to its subgrantees during 1987; the actual number of days totaled 2167, 30% higher than planned. Selected project development objectives for 1988 have been revised as follows: 1) number of active projects, 125; 2) number of countries with active projects, 34; 3) percentage obligated subgrant funds in 11 priority countries, 73%; and 4)percentage obligated subgrant funds in 3 priority non-bilateral countries, 20%.
FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
NUFUSBILIM DERGISI/TURKISH JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1987; 9:63-73.From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1987. xi, 826 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, Volume 2.)This inventory of population projects in developing countries shows, at a glance, by country, internationally assisted projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and other agencies and organizations during the reporting period (January 1985 to June 1986). Demographic estimates such as population by sex and by age group, age indicators, urban-rural population, and population density refer to the year end 1985; other estimates such as average annual change, rate of annual change, fertility, and mortality are 5-year averages for 1985-1990. The dollar value of projects or total country programs is given where figures are available. Chapter I provides information on country programs, and Chapter II deals with regional, interregional, and global programs. Chapter III lists sources, including published sources of information and and addresses for additional information and for keeping up-to-date on population activities. Each country profile includes a statement by Head of State of Government on their government's views regarding population, and views of the government on other population matters.
Development co-operation, 1986 review: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1986. 292 p.The 1986 annual report details the efforts and policies of the Development Assistance Committee members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (DECD). Part 1 provides an overview of development assistance by region and ways it might be improved as well as a chapter on Africa's long-term prospects. Part 2 covers current trends and policy issues in official development assistance, including volume trends and prospects, basic priorities, shifts in geographic and functional aid distribution, financial terms of aid, environmental concerns, and the role of women in development. Individual countries' assistance is covered as well as multilateral agencies. Part 3 deals with improving aid effectiveness through strengthened aid co-ordination and better policies. Separate sections cover improved development policies and coordination, technical assistance in support of improved economic management capacity, cooperation in agricultural development, and cooperation for improved energy sector management. Part 4 reviews trends in external resource flows to Sub-Saharan Africa. Annexes detail good procurement practices for official development assistance and the recommendations of the Council of the DECD on the environment and development assistance.
China: long-term development issues and options. The report of a mission sent to China by the World Bank.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. xiii, 183 p. (World Bank Country Economic Report)This report summarizes the conclusions of a World Bank study undertaken in 1984 to identify the key development issues China is expected to face in the next 20 years. Among the areas addressed by chapters in this monograph are agricultural prospects, energy development, spatial issues, international economic strategy, managing industrial technology, human development, mobilizing financial resources, and development management. China's economic prospects are viewed as dependinding upon success in mobilizing and effectively using all available resources, especially people. This in turn will depend on sucess in reforming the system of economic management, including progress in 3 areas: 1) greater use of market regulation to stimulate innovation and efficiency; 2) stronger planning, combining indirect with direct economic control; and 3) modification and extension of social institutions and policies to maintain the fairness in distribution that is basic to socialism in the face of the greater inequality and instability that may result from market regulation and indirect controls. Over the next 2 decades, China can be expected to become a middle-income country. The government has set the goal of quadrupling the gross value of industrial and agricultural output between 1980 and 2000 and increasing per capita income from US$300 to $800. China's size and past emphasis on local self-sufficiency offer opportunities for enormous economic gains through increased specialization and trade among localities. Increased rural-urban migration seems probable and desirable, although an increase in urban services and infrastructure will be required. The expected slow rate of population increase is an important foundation for China's favorable economic growth prospects. On the other hand, it may not be desirable to hold fertility below the replacement level for very long, given the effects this would have on the population's age structure. The increase in the proportion of elderly people will be a serious social issue in the next century, and reforms of the social security system need to be considered.
Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 337 p.This 1985 edition marks the 25th anniversary of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. It covers not only the lastest year but a quarter-century of large-scale economic assistance, and in some respects its compass is the entire 40 year period since World War II. Its purpose is to provide a record of the origin and evolution of this new form of international economic co-operation and to distil from this diverse experience valid lessons for the future. The review concentrates on the processes of international aid for development, giving lighter treatment to the more sector-specific processes of development itself and to the wider range of international economic relationships. Chapter I traces the evolution of official development assistance, drawing conclusions from both its successes and its failures as a basis for suggesting approaches to its main prospective challenges. Chapter II surveys the coming of age of development aid in its changing international settings from the perspective of successive chairmen ot the DAC. A chronology of the evolving system of development cooperation follows. The chapters in Parts 2, 3 and 4 fill in the details and highlight current challenges. These address: 1) trends and prospects in aid volume and its allocation, 2) the role of multilateral aid, 3) nongovernments1 organizations for development and relief, 4) total resource flows, 5) improvements in the administration of aid, 6) aid co-ordination and the policy dialogue, 7) trends and issues in aid to selected sectors, 8) efforts to reconcile the developmental and commercial objectives of DAC Members, 9) the assessment and enhancement of aid effectiveness through operational evaluations, 10) quantitative evidence of progress in development, and, finally, 11) the tasks ahead.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. 1 p.Tables culled from a variety of sources in this wall chart present statistics for assistance in thousands of US dollars given in 1969-1984 and 1985 by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to countries of the world, by country and by region. Variables include total population; children; youth; women; the elderly; the urban population; population density; crude birth rate; crude death rate; population growth rate; total fertility rate; life expectancy at birth; infant mortality rate; government perception of fertility (L-Low, H=High, S=Satisfactory); policies concerning contraceptive usage (A=access limited; B=access not limited and governmental support provided); contraceptive prevalence rate; and GNP per capital in US dollars.