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  1. 1

    Ageing populations. The social policy implications.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)

    This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
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  2. 2

    [Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1984] Annuaire statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique, 1984.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1986. xxviii, 630 p. (ST/ESCAP/340.)

    The 17th edition of this statistical yearbook includes data on population, manpower, national accounts, agriculture, industry, energy, consumption, transport and communications, internal trade, external trade, wages, prices, expenditures, finance, and social statistics for the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region as a whole as well as for Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Burma, China, Cook Islands, Democratic Kampuchea, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Niue, Pacific Islands, Pakistan, Papu New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam. An appendix contains data on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Population statistics include population size, crude live birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, crude marriage rate, crude divorce rate, gross reproduction rate, net reproduction rate, population density, age-sex composition, live birth rates by maternal age, death rates by age and sex, economically active population, life expentancy, and survivors at specific ages. Social statistics cover school enrollment by level, scientists and technicians, mass communications, medical facilities, causes of death, life insurance, co-operatives, damages from disasters and accidents, and housing.
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  3. 3

    Health development planning.

    Mahmoud SH

    In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)

    Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
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  4. 4

    The use of indicators of financial resources in the health sector. L'emploi des indicateurs de ressources financieres dans le secteur de la sante.

    Parker DA

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):450-62.

    This article provides an overview of the application of financial resource indicators in health. The focus is on indicators at the country level, although in certain instances related sub-national indicators are considered as well. 1st the different categories of financial resource indicators are described. The international experience in data collection, and problems of data availability and comparability are reviewed. Although the points addressed are relevant to all countries, the discussion is most applicable to the developing world where health information is limited. Particular attention is given to the design adn use of financial resource indicators in monitoring progress towards the goal of health for all. Finally, the steps that may be taken to increase the contribution of financial resource indicators to the health development process are discussed. Viewed economically, the health sector consists of production and consumption of services which have relatively direct influence on population health status. The different types of resources may be linked to their respective prices to show the financial flows that operate within the health system. The sources and uses of funds are identified. 3 types of financial resource indicators can be identified: health within the national economy, the provision of funds from primary sources and the functional and programmatic uses of funds. The 1st type is concerned with the aggregate availability of funds within the national economy and the fraction of those funds which are allocated to health. The 2nd component relates to the origins of the funds which make up the total health expenditure, under the broad headings of public, private and external sources of health finance. The 3rd type refers to the variety of used to which funds from these sources are put (expressed in terms of function e.g. salaries), program type (e.g. primary health care), or activity (e.g. health education).
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  5. 5

    Recurrent costs: problems in less developed countries.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 24 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Inadequate budgeting for recurrent costs is a serious problems in many less developed countries (LDC). The problem is defined and analyzed and recommendations are made in reference to the way US Agency for International Development (USAID) Missions should respond to the problem. Recurrent costs are costs that recur throughout the lifetime of a project, e.g., road maintenance costs, teacher's salaries, and medical supplies for clinics. If a project such, as a road, generates sufficient money, or output, it is usually more profitable for a country to budget for the recurring costs of maintaing the road rather than to use the money for investing in a new project with initial costs, i.e., high investment and fixed costs. The output from the road would probably be greater than the output from the new project because of these high initial costs. When a country does not allocate money for recurring costs for existing projects, which have potentially high outputs, the country is defined as having a recurring cost problem. Many LDCs recipients are experiencing serious economic crises due to adverse international market conditions Thes countries will find it increasingly difficult to allocate money to cover the cost of maintaining USAID projects. There are 3 major reasons why LDCs have recurring cost problems. 1st, donor policies often contribute to the problem because the generally restrict funding to capital investment and refuse to cover recurring costs in the mistaken belief that it is better to use funds for growth rather than consumption, that it promotes self-reliance on the part of the recipient country, and that the recipient country will be more committed to the project if they have to maintain it. 2nd, policies in recipient countries are sometimes responsible for recurring cost problems because 1) the countries fail to raise adequate revenues, 2) they misallocate funds for political reasons or for services they cannot afford to provide, and 3) they are straddled with poorly designed projects that have high recurring costs but small outputs. Procedures are suggested for determining whether a country currrently has a recurrent cost problem and for assessing whether a country will develop a recurrent cost problem in the near future. Solutions to the problem are 1) allocation of a greater proportion of the countries revenues to recurrent costs, 2) reducing investment in new projects, 3) increasing revenues, and 4) ensuring that recurrent costs are kept to a minimun in any new projects. Appropriate USAID responses depend on the cause, USAID Missions should persuade the country to undertake reforms. If a LDC refuses to modify its poliies, USAID should consider reducing the level of assistance to that country. If the LDC's policies are appropriate but there is still a recurrent cost problem, USAID Missions should consider funding some of the recurrent costs.
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  6. 6


    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1983 May. 16 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Cofinancing is a useful method of development finance that offers the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) resources by broadening the scope of investment opportunities beyond those that are within its singular capacity. Cofinancing is any formal arrangement under which USAID loan and/or grant funds are associated with funds from one or more different sources (private or public) outside the borrowing country to finance a particular program. Cofinancing may be used to leverage USAID resources with those of the external private sector as well as to facilitate the transfer of skills and technology. The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has viewed cofinancing primarily in the context of its ability to improve the quality of assistance (additionality). Multilateral Development Bank (MDB) participation in USAID-sponsored cofinancing arrangements should generally be in the form of at risk lending as a means of enhancing the prospects for additionality over the medium to longer term. While USAID in appropriate conditions is willing to provide relief, it will not generally link its loans to those of other cofinancing participants through the use of mandatory cross-default clauses but may use optional cross-default clauses in the case of private lenders. In addition to advantages in the application of development assistance resources, cofinancing offers the potential for enhancing the effectiveness of USAID's policy dialogue with the respective less developed countries (IDCs). Although cofinancing has a number of potential advantages, particular care should be exercised to insure that cofinancing does not become an end itself, but rather remains a mechanism among other alternatives to be utilized when it represents the most efficient application of USAID resources in the context of the development objectives of country-specific strategies.
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