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Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank, Economics Office, 1987 May. 28 p. (Economics Office Report Series No. 40)Even though population growth rates continue to decline in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank, they will experience absolute population increases larger than those in the past. More importantly, the labor force continues to grow and absolute increases will be greater than any other time in history. Family planning education and access to contraceptives have contributed to the decline in population growth rates, but nothing can presently be done to decrease the rates of increase of the labor force because the people have already been born. Since most of the DMSs' populations are growing at 2% or more/year, much needed economic growth is delayed. For example, for any country with a growing population to maintain the amount of capital/person, it must spread capital. Yet the faster the population grows the lesser the chances for increasing that amount. The Bank's short to medium term development policy should include loans for projects that will generate employment using capital widening and deepening and that develop rural areas, such as employment in small industries, to prevent urban migration. Other projects that engulf this policy are those concerning primary, secondary and adult education; health; food supply; and housing and infrastructure. The long term development policy must bolster population programs in DMCs so as to reduce the growth of the economically active segment of the population in the 21st century. In addition, the Bank should address fertility issues as more and more women join the work force. The Bank can play a major role in Asian development by considering the indirect demographic and human resource impacts of each project.
Population aging: review of emerging issues. Report, proposed study design and selected background papers from the Meeting on Emerging Issues of the Aging Population, 22-26 September 1986, Bangkok.
Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. iii, 95 p. (Asian Population Studies Series, No. 80.; ST/ESCAP/496.)The Meeting on the Emerging issues of the Aging of Population was held at Bangkok, from 22-26 September 1986. It was organized by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific with financial assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities. The long-term objective of the project was to increase awareness among policy makers and planners of the emerging problems of population aging and provide them with alternative policies. The situation and emerging issues of aging are illustrated in this report at the country level by case studies of the 3 countries participating in the projects: Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, and Sri Lanka. Discussion themes include educational programs for older people, the appropriateness of lowering the mandatory retirement age to improve employment prospects for younger people, and the difficulty for individuals and governments of planning ahead when life expectancy is rising so rapidly. In virtually all the countries of the region, traditional filial piety is weakening, in many cases because adult children experienced income rises which do not keep up with the cost of living or rising expectations. Given that the young are becoming more individualistic, it was agreed that government measures were required to strengthen existing family support and to provide alternatives when it was not available. The background paper on current issues related to population aging emphasizes the Japanese experience and covers senior citizen clubs in Japan, national pension plans mandatory retirement ages, and the use and transfer of older people's personal wealth. Another background paper conceptualizes the social roles of older people in both developing and developed countries in the context of rapid social change and the need for appropriate policy responses. A background paper on the nature and adequacy of formal and informal support programs to deal with the problems of the aged examines the socioeconomic changes in the region, various programs, and possible solutions for policy makers. The Meeting considered the design of country studies proposed for China, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, and Sri Lanka. On completion of theses studies, existing policies will be reviewed and suggestions made for their improvement and development.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.