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  1. 1
    052159

    Our common future.

    World Commission on Environment and Development

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1987. xv, 400 p.

    In this report, the World Commission on Environment and Development does not predict ever increasing environmental decay, poverty, and hardship in a world becoming more polluted and experiencing decreasing resources but sees instead the possibility for a new era of economic growth. This era of economic growth must be based on policies that sustain and expand the environmental resource base. Such growth is absolutely essential to relieving the great poverty that is intensifying in much of the developing world. The report suggests a pathway by which the peoples of the world can enlarge their spheres of cooperation. The Commission has focused its attention in the areas of population, food security, the loss of species and genetic resources, and human settlements, recognizing that all are connected and cannot be treated in isolation from each other. 2 conditions must be satisfied before international economic exchanges can become beneficial for all involved: the sustainability of ecosystems on which the global economy depends must be guaranteed; and the economic partners must be satisfied that the basis of exchange is equitable. Neither condition is met for many developing nations. Efforts to maintain social and ecological stability through old approaches to development and environmental protection will increase stability. The Commission has identified several actions that must be undertaken to reduce risks to survival and to put future development on sustainable paths. Such a reorientation on a continuing basis is beyond the reach of present decision making structures and institutional arrangements, both national and international. The Commission has taken care to base its recommendations on the realities of present institutions, on what can and must be accomplished now; yet to keep options open for future generations, the present generation must begin to act now and to act together. The Commission's proposals for institutional and legal change at the national, regional, and international levels are embodied in 6 priority areas: getting at the sources; dealing with the effects; assessing global risks; making informed choices; providing the legal means; and investing in the future.
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  2. 2
    030012

    Report of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development.

    United Nations. Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-60. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The primary objective of the meeting of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development was to identify mechanisms through which poulation characteristics conditioned and were conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the development structure. This called for a systems approach in which all factors were treated simultaneously and in which the closing of loops through feedback effects was of foremost importance. The 1st item of the agenda called for a general discussion of past and future trends in population, resources, environment, and development. The Expert Group emphasized the need for better knowledge of how the trends of the various variables interacted and modified each other and particularly about the role of population within the interrelationships. The discussion of food and nutrition focused on the demographic, economic, social, political, and institutional aspects of meeting the needs for food and nutrition, while the physical aspects were given greater attention in the discussions of resources and environments. At the center of the deliberations were such concerns as poverty, the food versus feed controversy, food self sufficiency, and the role of population growth. The discussion on resources and the environment covered the resource base, environmental degradation, and nonrenewable resources. Attention was directed to the various mechanisms that could expand resource availability as well as those activities that had caused a degradation of the environment. The discussions of social and economic aspects of development involved 4 interrelated topics: income distribution, employment, health and education, and social security. The last items on the agenda addressed the issue of integrated planning and policy formation. Some members of the Expert Group were concerned with immediate problems. Viewing demographic trends as largely exogenous, they gave highest priority to finding the best way to accommodate the needs of growing populations. Others emphasized longrun problems and considered demographic trends as policy instruments for dealing with problems of resources, the environment, and development.
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  3. 3
    047785

    What's wrong, what's ahead, how do we make it right?

    UN CHRONICLE. 1988 Mar; 25(1):35.

    The "Environmental Perspective" of the UN outlines 6 major problem areas and suggests what should be done about them. 1) Overpopulation exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment. Specific attention should be given to the problems of cities and public works projects should be designed to provide employment and improve the environment. 2) Food shortages must be dealt with to ensure security and restore the environment. Governments must adopt policies and institute regulatory measures for land and water use. 3) The available energy resources are being consumed at vastly different rates throughout the world. Policies should be devised to more equitably meet energy demands without further increasing the costs to the environment. 4) Industrial development is damaging the environment, and government policies, especially in developing countries, must be geared to minimizing waste of resources and increasing pollution. 5) Inadequate housing and public health services are causing high morbidity and mortality in many areas. Programs must be developed to deal with tropical diseases and unsanitary conditions. 6) International economic relations often adversely affect development. Aid to developing countries must be increased and trade patterns developed to mutual advantage and to safeguard the environment.
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  4. 4
    047034

    Liberia: population and development.

    Brown E

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 232-47.

    This paper summarizes those aspects of the 1984 World Development Report which deal with population prospects and policies in Liberia. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only area of the world where there has not yet been any decline in the rate of growth of the population, and Liberia with a population of 2 million and growing at the rate of 3.5%/year has 1 of the highest growth rates in that area. The birth rate is 50/1000 of the population, and the death rate is 14/1000. The fertility rate is nearly 7 children/woman and is not expected to decline to replacement level before year 2030. Infant mortality is 91/1000, and half of all deaths occur among children under 5. Projecting these demographic trends into the future leads to the conclusion that the population will double in 20 years and exceed 6 million by 2030. Although fertility will begin to decline in the 1990s, the population will continue to increase for a few years with the growth rate declining to 2%/year by 2020 and 1.2%/year by 2045. Such rapid population growth will cause great stress on the country's ability to provide food, schools, and health care. For the children themselves, large, poor families, with births spaced too close together, means malnutrition, poor health , and lower intellectual capacity. And the cycle of poverty continues over the generations as the families save less and expend more on the immediate needs of their children. In macroeconomic terms, a growth rate of l2%/year means a massive explosion of need for food, water, energy, housing, health services and education, with a gross domestic product (GDP) growth of only 2%/year; and this projection is probably optimistic. The rural sector will not be able to support the 23% additional rural labor force, which will migrate to the towns, adding to the already high urban growth rate of 5.7%/year from natural increase. In this society, where literacy is only 20% and secondary education completed by only 11% of the girls, it is estimated that only %5 of eligible couples practice birth control despite the fact that it costs less than $1.00 per capita. Government must step in to ensure that resources exist for population planning at county and local levels. Government is responsible for making demographic data accessible and for coordinating population program inputs. Government should also make sure that family planning programs can be implemented through integration with existing health services. A project including restructuring of health care management, financing and delivery, as well as development of a national population policy, has been proposed for World Bank and other international agencies' support.
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  5. 5
    045892

    A world divided.

    Brown LR; Jacobson JL

    POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.

    This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
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  6. 6
    200379

    [The World Bank glossary] Glossaire de la Banque mondiale=Glosario del Banco Mundial.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1986. v, 421, v, 360 p.

    The WORLD BANK GLOSSARY contains not only financial and economic terminology and terms relating to the Bank's procedures and practices, but also terms that occur frequently in Bank documents. Terms in such diverse fields as agriculture, education, energy, housing, law, technology, and transportation--all fields related to economic development--have been assembled here for ease of reference. The glossary is intended to serve the Bank's translators and interpreters. Volume I contains English-French and French-English terms; volume II includes English-Spanish and Spanish-English terms. Both volumes contain a list of acronyms occurring frequently in Bank texts and a list of international, regional, and national organizations. The glossary does not define terms.
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  7. 7
    200260

    [Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1984] Annuaire statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique, 1984.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1986. xxviii, 630 p. (ST/ESCAP/340.)

    The 17th edition of this statistical yearbook includes data on population, manpower, national accounts, agriculture, industry, energy, consumption, transport and communications, internal trade, external trade, wages, prices, expenditures, finance, and social statistics for the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region as a whole as well as for Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Burma, China, Cook Islands, Democratic Kampuchea, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Niue, Pacific Islands, Pakistan, Papu New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam. An appendix contains data on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Population statistics include population size, crude live birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, crude marriage rate, crude divorce rate, gross reproduction rate, net reproduction rate, population density, age-sex composition, live birth rates by maternal age, death rates by age and sex, economically active population, life expentancy, and survivors at specific ages. Social statistics cover school enrollment by level, scientists and technicians, mass communications, medical facilities, causes of death, life insurance, co-operatives, damages from disasters and accidents, and housing.
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  8. 8
    034572

    China: long-term development issues and options. The report of a mission sent to China by the World Bank.

    Lim E; Wood A; Porter I; Taylor RP; Byrd W; Tidrick G; King T; Tims W; Pohl G

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. xiii, 183 p. (World Bank Country Economic Report)

    This report summarizes the conclusions of a World Bank study undertaken in 1984 to identify the key development issues China is expected to face in the next 20 years. Among the areas addressed by chapters in this monograph are agricultural prospects, energy development, spatial issues, international economic strategy, managing industrial technology, human development, mobilizing financial resources, and development management. China's economic prospects are viewed as dependinding upon success in mobilizing and effectively using all available resources, especially people. This in turn will depend on sucess in reforming the system of economic management, including progress in 3 areas: 1) greater use of market regulation to stimulate innovation and efficiency; 2) stronger planning, combining indirect with direct economic control; and 3) modification and extension of social institutions and policies to maintain the fairness in distribution that is basic to socialism in the face of the greater inequality and instability that may result from market regulation and indirect controls. Over the next 2 decades, China can be expected to become a middle-income country. The government has set the goal of quadrupling the gross value of industrial and agricultural output between 1980 and 2000 and increasing per capita income from US$300 to $800. China's size and past emphasis on local self-sufficiency offer opportunities for enormous economic gains through increased specialization and trade among localities. Increased rural-urban migration seems probable and desirable, although an increase in urban services and infrastructure will be required. The expected slow rate of population increase is an important foundation for China's favorable economic growth prospects. On the other hand, it may not be desirable to hold fertility below the replacement level for very long, given the effects this would have on the population's age structure. The increase in the proportion of elderly people will be a serious social issue in the next century, and reforms of the social security system need to be considered.
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  9. 9
    038079

    Electricity for a developing world: new directions.

    Flavin C

    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1986. 66 p. (Worldwatch Paper 70)

    This monograph focuses on developing electric power, the efficient use of electricity, new approaches in rural electrification, and decentralizing generators and institutions. Electric power systems, for a long time considered showpieces of development, now are central to some of the most serious problems 3rd world countries face. Many 3rd world utilities are so deeply in debt that international bailouts may be required to stave off bankruptcy. Financial probles, together with various technical difficulties, have resulted in a serious decline in the reliability of many 3rd world power systems, which may impede industrial growth. At this time the common presumption that developing countries will soon attain the reliable, economical electricity service taken for granted in industrial nations is in doubt. World Bank support of electricity systems grew from $85 million annually in the mid-1950s to $271 million in the mid-1960s, $1400 million in the early 1970s, and $1800 million in the early 1980s. The Bank's support of electrtic power projects has leveled off in recent years and shrunk in proportional terms as lending expanded in other areas. The general trend is toward greater centralization and governmental control of electric power systems. Commercial banks and government supported lending institutions prefer to deal with a strong central authority that has government financial backing yet is outside the day-to-day political process. The World Bank files reveal a consistent push for greater centralization and consolidation of authority whenever questions of the structure of a power system arise. Over the years, the World Bank has gradually becomes stricter in the institutional preconditions it sets for power loans. By the early 1980s, 3rd world countries were using 6 times as much electric power as they had 20 years earlier but compared with industrial nations electricity plays a relatively small role in 3rd world economies. In most developing nations electricity consumption is so low and the potential future uses so great that electricity use continues to expand even when the economy does not. Meeting projected growth in the demand for electricity services will be virtually impossible without substantial efficiency improvements. The cornerstone of any new program is improve efficiency is a pricing system that reflects the true cost of providing power. Rather than a blanket cure for the problems of village life, rural electrification is simply a tool that is appropriate in some cases. Electric cooperatives offer an approach to rural electrification that has worked well in some countries.
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  10. 10
    033138

    Population and environment.

    Agarwal A

    Economic and Political Weekly. 1985 Jun 15; 20(24):1,035-7.

    A critical question for expert and laypersons is whether India's lands can support its large and growing population. This is where the "carrying capacity" comes in, for it is the number of people or animals that an area of land can support on a sustainable basis. Not 1 expert in India has attempted to quantify the carrying capacity of the area under a single development block, let alone the entire country. In late 1983, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) released an extensive study on the question of what India's land is physically capable of producing on a sustainable basis, without entering the realm of social organization and land reform. The picture of India that emerges from "Potential Population Supporting Capacities of Lands in the Developing World" is both exhilirating and sobering. India has enormous problems yet also has an equally enormous natural resource base for solving its problems. Assuming high and intermediate levels of inputs, the potential population supporting capacity of India's lands increased to 6.84 and 3.53 persons per hectare. India's lands could have fed as much as 3 1/2 times the existing population in 1975. By the year 2000 the picture changes for the better because of India's massive irrigation development plans. To obtain an estimate of the land that would be under rainfed production, FAO experts substracted the land under irrigation and land under nonagricultural uses. To get an estimate of the land under nonagricultural use, the study takes an average figure of 0.05 hectare per person of nonagricultural land. This means that in 1975 India needed 31 million hectares on nonagricultural land (10% of the total land area) and by 2000 it will need 52 million hectares (16% of the total land area). In this way, the study obtains a number of agro-ecological cells available for rainfed cultivation. After selecting the input level (low, intermediate, or high), each agroecological unit is then analyzed separately for 18 different crops, including grasslands, to get an estimate of the livestock potential. Thus, the study obtains the crop which is most productive under the unique circumstances of each agroecological unit. This gives the total productivity of each agroecological unit. What the FAO study shows clearly is that the key factors that will determine future success are good soil and water management measures. Both elements are totally lacking in India's agricultural management system. Probably more than family planning programs, India needs national "ecodevelopment" programs.
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  11. 11
    030330

    Stopping population growth.

    Brown LR

    In: State of the world 1985. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society [by] Lester R. Brown, Edward C. Wolf, Linda Starke, William U. Chandler, Christopher Flavin, Sandra Postel, Cynthia Pollack. New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1985. 200-21.

    The demographic contrasts of the 1980s are placing considerable stress on the international economic system and on national political structures. Runaway population growth is indirectly fueling the debt crisis by increasing the need for imported food and other basic commodities. Low fertility countries are food aid donors, and the higher fertility countries are the recipients. In most countries with high fertility, food production per person is either stagnant or declining. Population policy is becoming a priority of national governments and international development agencies. This discussion reviews what has happened since the UN's first World Population Conference in 1974 in Bucharest, fertility trends and projections, social influences on fertility, advances in contraceptive technology, and 2 major family planning gaps -- the gap between the demand for family planning services and their availability and the gap between the societal need to slow population growth quickly and the private interests of couples in doing so. The official purpose of the 1984 UN International Conference on Population convened in Mexico City, in which 149 countries participated, was to review the world population plan of action adopted at Bucharest. In Bucharest there had been a wide political schism between the representatives of industrial countries, who pushed for an increase in 3rd world family planning efforts, and those from developing countries, whose leaders argued that social and economic progress was the key to slowing population growth. In Mexico City this division had virtually disappeared. Many things had happened since Bucharest to foster the attitude change. The costly consequences of continuing rapid population growth that had seemed so theoretical in the 1974 debate were becoming increasingly real for many. World population in 1984 totaled 4.76 billion, an increase of some 81 million in 1 year. The population projections for the industrial countries and East Asia seem reasonable enough in terms of what local resource and life support systems can sustain, but those for much of the rest of the world do not. Most demographers are still projecting that world population will continue growing until it reaches some 10 billion, but that most of the 5.3 billion additional people will be concentrated in a few regions, principally the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. What demographers are projecting does not mesh with what ecologists or agronomists are reporting. In too many countries ecological deterioration is translating into economic decline which in turn leads to social disintegration. The social indicator that correlates most closely with declining fertility across the whole range of development is the education of women. Worldwide, sterilization protects more couples from unwanted pregnancy than any other practice. Oral contraceptives rank second. The rapid growth now confronting the world community argues for effective family planning programs.
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  12. 12
    030024

    Population, resources and environment and prospects for socio-economic development.

    Mangahas M

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
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  13. 13
    030020

    Population, resources and development.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 267-92. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The 1st section of this paper devoted to population, resources, and development broadly delineates for countries the physiological limits of land to support human populations according to pressure on resources. Subsequent sections examine the impact which an abatement of population growth could have by the year 2000 on resources in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector of developing countries in particular, link poverty to malnutrition, and deal with 1 specific aspect of the relation between distribution and undernutrition. The purpose of the final section is to highlight certain issues of the "food-feed competition" which requires more attention in the future. The frailty of the balance between population and resources is a basic concern of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN. FAO's purpose is to promote agricultural and rural development and to contribute to the improvement of people's nutritional level. The significant characteristics of the FAO work on "potential population supporting capacity of lands" are the improved soil and climatic data from which it starts and the explicit specification of the assumptions made about technology, inputs, and nutritional intake requirements. Both the carrying capacity project and the results of "Agriculture: Toward 2000" have emphasized the importance of the role that technology will play in world agriculture in the future. Yet, technology is not free and its cost should be compared to alternative solutions. Moving people -- migration -- is an option that suggests itself in relation to the carrying capacity project. Changes in certain institutions, including land reform, size of the farm, market systems, pricing regimes are more suggestions that may arise with respect "Agriculture: Toward 2000" and to the food-feed competition. The ultimate question continues to be whether high agricultural technology is feasible on a world agricultural scale without dire environmental and other effects.
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  14. 14
    030013

    General overview. A. Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 63-95. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The acceptance by the international community of the importance of the interrelations between population, resources, environment, and development has been in large measure an outgrowth of the search for development alternatives that would reduce the disparities between developed and developing countries and ameliorate poverty within countries. Possibly the most important task of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development is to identify more clearly the role of population within these interrelationships, i.e., to identify through which mechanisms population characteristics condition and are conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the developmental structure. To a considerable extent the incidence of poverty forms the root cause of many of the problems derived from the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development in developing countries. Affluence appears to be the major cause of many of the environmental and resource problems in the developed countries. The first 2 sections are devoted to issues considered crucial in the alleviation of poverty. Lack of food, adequate nutrition, health care, education, gainful employment, old age security, and adequate per capita incomes perpetuate poverty of large numbers of people in developing countries and therefore also their production and consumption patterns, which undermine, through environmental and resource degradation, the very resources on which they depend for their livelihood. The discussion of environment as a provider of resources first considers supplies of minerals, energy, and water. Attention is then directed to the stock of agricultural land that can be expanded through fertilization and irrigation and which may be reduced as a result of desertification, deforestation, urbanization, salinization, and waterlogging. Another section focuses on the need for integrating population variables into development planning. In the formulation of longterm development objectives, population can no longer be regarded as an exogenous force, but rather becomes an endogenous variable which affects and is affected by development policies, programs, and plans.
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  15. 15
    028858

    [Hunger and disease in less developed countries and en route to development (the Third World). Proposal for solutions] Hambre y enfermedades en los paises menos adelantados y en vias de desarrollo (Tercer Mundo). Propuesta de soluciones.

    Piedrola Gil G

    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. 1984; 101(1):39-96.

    The extent, causes, and possible solutions to problems of hunger, inequality, and disease in developing countries are discussed in this essay. Various frameworks and indicators have been proposed for identifying the poorest of nations; currently, 21 African, 9 Asian, and 1 American nation are regarded as the poorest of the poor. The 31 least developed countries, the 89 developing countries, and the 37 developed countries respectively have populations of 283 million, 3 billion; infant mortality rates of 160, 94, and 19/1000 live births; life expectancies of 45, 60, and 72 years; literacy rates of 28, 55, and 98%; per capita gross national products of $170, and $520, and $6230; and per capita public health expenditures of $1.70, $6.50, and $244. Developing countries in the year 2000 are expected to have 4.87 billion of the world's 6.2 billion inhabitants. The 3rd world contains 70% of the world's population but receives only 17% of world income. 40 million persons die of hunger or its consequences each year. Economic and social development is the only solution to problems of poverty and underdevelopment, and will require mobilization of all present and future human and material resources to achieve maximum possible wellbeing for each human being. Among principal causes of underdevelopment in the 3rd World are drought, illness, exile, socioeconomic disorder, war, and arms expenditures. Current food production and a long list of possible new technologies would be adequate to feed the world's population, but poor distribution condemns the world's people to hunger. Numerous UN agencies, organizations, and programs are dedicated to solving the problems of hunger, underdevelopment, and disease. In 1982, 600 billion dollars were spent in armanents, of $112 for each of the world's inhabitants; diversion of these resources to development goals would go a long way toward solving the problem of underdevelopment. The main problem is not lack of resources, but the need to establish a new and more just economic and distributive order along with genuine solidarity in the struggle against underdevelopment. Several steps should be taken: agricultural production should be increased with the full participation of the developng nations; the industrialized or petroleum-producing nations should aid the poor states with at least .7% and up to 5% of their gross national products for the struggle against drought, disease, illiteracy, and for the green revolution and new agropastoral technologies; prices paid to poor countries for raw materials should be fair; responsible parenthood, education, women's rights, clean drinking water, environmental sanitation and primary health care should be promoted; the arms race should be halted, and the North-South dialogue should be pursued in a spirit of goodwill and cooperation.
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  16. 16
    027804

    Country statement: Ethiopia.

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 21 p.

    This discussion of Ethiopia focuses on: sources of demographic data; population size and age-sex distribution; urbanization; fertility; marital status of the population; mortality and health; rate of natural increase; economic activity and labor force activity rates; food production; education; population policies and programs; and population in development planning. As of 1983, Ethiopia's population was estimated at 33.7 million. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Ethiopia has not yet conducted a population census, however, the 1st population and housing census is planned for 1984. The population is young with children under 15 years of age constituting 45.4% of the total population; 3.5% of the population are aged 65 years and older. The degree of urbanization is very low while the urban growth rate is very high. Most of the country is rural with only 15% of the population living in localities of 2000 or more inhabitants. In 1980-81 the crude birthrate was 46.9/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.9. Of those aged 15 years and older, 69.2% of males and 71.3% of females are married. According to the 1980-81 Demographic Survey the estimates of the levels of mortality were a crude death rate of 18.4/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 144/1000. At this time 45% of the population have access to health services. It is anticipated that 80% of the population will be covered by health care services in 10 years time. Ethiopia is increasing at a very rapid rate of natural increase; the 1980 estimation was 2.9% per annum. Despite the rich endowments in agricultural potential, Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in food production and reamins a net importer of grain. Enrollment at various levels of education is expanding rapidly. There is no official population policy. Financial assistance received from the UN Fund for Population Activities and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund for population programs is shown.
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  17. 17
    028095

    Perspectives on the international relations of food.

    Hopkins RF; Puchala DJ

    In: Ghosh PK, ed. Health, food and nutrition in Third World development. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 87-124. (International Development Resource Books No. 6)

    The global food problem is delineated, and a set of concepts for analyzing the world food system is provided and used to critically examine the food system. The global food problem consists of an interrelated set of elements which affect countries differently. These elements are 1) the food shortage threat; 2) instability in the food supply stemming from price fluctuations, unpredictable markets, and an undependable trade flow; 3) an unpredictable supply of food for importation; 4) low agricultural production in developing countries; and 5) malnutrition. The global food system consists of production centers, consumption centers, and distribution channels. Conditions that characterize the system are the result of regimes, i.e., the rules and norms which control the system at any particular point in time. A regime can be identified by 1) observing transaction flows, the allocation of resources, and food diplomacy patterns; 2) by examining the agendas of food issue forums; and 3) by listening to the arguments used to bolster or criticize specific food policies. The global food system created by the current regime, which has been in existence since the 1940s, is a system which divides the countries of the world into surplus and deficit countries and has 2 distributional channels. These channels are 1) commercial sellers and buyers and 2) concessionally linked donors and recipients. The regime which created this system was imposed primarily by the US government. The regime is characterized by 1) a belief in the free market system, 2) a willing to provide famine relief but a refusal to address the chronic malnutrition problem, 3) the conditional acceptance of the distribution of food, in the form of food aid, outside the market system; 4) the promotion of the flow of technological information; 5) respect for national sovereignty, which has the effect of preventing aid from reaching the poorest segments of the population of developing countries; 6) assignment of a low priority to the development of self-reliance in developing countries; and 7) a willingness to accumulate a grain surplus for distribution to countries with shortfalls. The activities of multinational agribusiness tend to reinforce and support this regime. The international food network, consisting largely of UN agencies, can modify the food regime by 1) encouraging governments to confront critical food issues, 2) collecting and disseminating information about the food problem, 3) providing services which governments are unable to perform because of political considerations; and 4) legitimize policies via multilateral sanction. The system supported by the present regime promotes the exploitation of the poor by the wealthy and ignores the need for distributive justice. There are some indications that a new regime is in the process of being developed as evidenced by the new international economic order.
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  18. 18
    025933

    Food and agricultural development.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
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