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Population aging: review of emerging issues. Report, proposed study design and selected background papers from the Meeting on Emerging Issues of the Aging Population, 22-26 September 1986, Bangkok.
Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. iii, 95 p. (Asian Population Studies Series, No. 80.; ST/ESCAP/496.)The Meeting on the Emerging issues of the Aging of Population was held at Bangkok, from 22-26 September 1986. It was organized by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific with financial assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities. The long-term objective of the project was to increase awareness among policy makers and planners of the emerging problems of population aging and provide them with alternative policies. The situation and emerging issues of aging are illustrated in this report at the country level by case studies of the 3 countries participating in the projects: Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, and Sri Lanka. Discussion themes include educational programs for older people, the appropriateness of lowering the mandatory retirement age to improve employment prospects for younger people, and the difficulty for individuals and governments of planning ahead when life expectancy is rising so rapidly. In virtually all the countries of the region, traditional filial piety is weakening, in many cases because adult children experienced income rises which do not keep up with the cost of living or rising expectations. Given that the young are becoming more individualistic, it was agreed that government measures were required to strengthen existing family support and to provide alternatives when it was not available. The background paper on current issues related to population aging emphasizes the Japanese experience and covers senior citizen clubs in Japan, national pension plans mandatory retirement ages, and the use and transfer of older people's personal wealth. Another background paper conceptualizes the social roles of older people in both developing and developed countries in the context of rapid social change and the need for appropriate policy responses. A background paper on the nature and adequacy of formal and informal support programs to deal with the problems of the aged examines the socioeconomic changes in the region, various programs, and possible solutions for policy makers. The Meeting considered the design of country studies proposed for China, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, and Sri Lanka. On completion of theses studies, existing policies will be reviewed and suggestions made for their improvement and development.
Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. , 86 p.The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
[The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.
Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.
MIDWIVES CHRONICLE. 1985 Jul; 98(1170):200-1.At the April meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO), experts in occupational health concluded that there is no evidence to justify the exclusion of women from any type of employment. Yet, they simultaneously underscored the need for conditions in places of work to be adapted to women, and in particular to those women employed in manual work, whether agriculture or manufacture. This was WHO's 1st meeting on the subject of health and the working woman. According to the experts, anatomical and physiological differences between men and women should not limit job opportunities. As more and more women enter the work force, machines need to be redesigned to take into account the characteristics of working women. In industries where strength is a requirement, e.g., mining, a certain level of body strength and size should be established and applied to both sexes. Also recommended were measures to protect women of childbearing age, who form the majority of women in the work force, against the hazards of chemicals -- gases, lead, solder fumes, sterilizing agents, pesticides -- and other threats to health deriving from the work places. Chemicals or ionizing radiation absorbed into the body could lead to mutagenicity, not only of women but also of men. In cases where a woman has conceived, mutagenicity could mean fetal death, or, where damage is done to sperm or ovum, lead to congenital malformation and to leukemia in newborns. Solvents so absorbed could appear in breast milk, thus poisoning the baby. Ionizing radiation, used in several industrial operations, also has been linked to breast cancer. As women increasingly take jobs that once used to be done solely by men, more needs to be known about the hazards of their health and of the psychosocial implications of long working hours. The following were included among recommendations made to increase knowledge and to protect health: that epidemiological studies be conducted in the risk of working women as well as more research on the effects of chemicals on pregnant workers; that working women be allowed to breastfeed children for at least 6 months at facilities set up at work places; and that information and health education programs be carried out to alert women against occupational health hazards.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1987 Jun. 114,  p. (PHN Techical Note 87-15)The issue of appropriate tobacco policies for less developed countries (LDCs), based essentially on the experiences of the more developed countries, is addressed. Following an overview of current trends in tobacco consumption and production and discussion of the health consequences of tobacco use, attention is directed to the rationale for government policy within the context of neoclassical welfare economics. Issues surrounding policy instruments intended to reduce the demand for cigarettes are examined as are production related policies. Finally, focus is on the question of the propriety of the World Bank's lending for tobacco projects. Available evidence from several European nations suggests that simply the discussion of smoking and health policies can have a noticeable effect on smoking. Leu (1986) reports that smoking declined in Switzerland following the health disclosures, but it declined more substantially following a public referendum (1979) on a complete advertising ban despite the fact that the ban was defeated at the polls. The evidence for information dissemination programs is impressive, yet such approaches have been criticized as inadequate on the basis that the reductions in smoking have not been large enough and that people continue to be inadequately informed about all the risks of smoking. Information based policies to control tobacco use have several advantages, including: they are noncoercive and reinforce an individual's prerogative to control his/her own life; they improve market functions; and they have an important impact on tobacco use and tobacco induced illnesses. Specific recommendations are outlined. Setting aside health considerations, from both a longterm and global perspective, the case for promoting tobacco production on economic grounds is shaky. Tobacco now typically is a profitable crop, yet much of its advantage stems from the various subsidies, tariffs, and supply restrictions that support its high price and provide economic rents for its producers. Health considerations aside, from both a longterm and global perspective, the case for promoting tobacco production on economic grounds is weak. Tobacco typically is a profitable crop at this time, yet much of its advantage stems from the various subsidies, tariffs, and supply restrictions that support its high price and provide economic rents for its producers.
Socio-economic development and fertility decline in Costa Rica. Background paper prepared for the project on socio-economic development and fertility decline.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 118 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/55)This summary of information on the development process in Costa Rica and its relation to fertility from 1950-70 is a revision of a study prepared for the Workshop on Socioeconomic Development and Fertility Decline held in Costa Rica in April 1982 as part of a UN comparative study of 5 developing countries. The report contains chapters on background information on fertility and the family, historical facts, and political organization of Costa Rica; the development strategy and its consequences vis a vis the composition of the gross domestic product, balance of trade, investment trends, the structure of the labor force, educational levels, and income; the allocation of public resources in public employment, public investment, credit, public expenditures, and the impact of resource allocation policies; changes in land tenure patterns; cultural factors affecting fertility, including education, women and their family roles, behavior in the home, women and politics, work and social security, and race and religion; changes in demographic variables, including nuptiality patterns, marital fertility, and natural fertility and birth control; characteristics and determining factors of the decline in fertility, including levels and trends, decline by age group, decline in terms of birth order, differences among population groups, how fertility declined, and history and role of family planning programs; and a discussion of the modernization process in Costa Rica and the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables. Beginning with the 1948 civil war, Costa Rica underwent drastic changes which were still reflected in national life as late as 1970. The industrial sector and the government bureaucracy have become decisive forces in development and the government has become the major employer. The state plays a key role in economic life, and state participation is a determining factor in extending medical and educational resources in the social field. The economically active population declined from 64% in 1960 to 55% in 1975 due to urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas, but there was an increase in economic participation of women, especially in urban areas. Increased educational level of the population in general and women in particular created changes in traditional attitudes and behavior. Although there is no specific explanation of why Costa Rica's fertility decline occurred, some observations about its determining factors and mechanisms can be made: the considerable economic development of the 1950s and 1960s brought about a rapid rise in per capita income and changes in the structure of production as well as substantial social development, increased opportunities for self-improvement for some social groups, and a rise in expectations. The size of the family became an aspect of conflict between rising expectations and increasing expenses. The National Family Planning Program helped accelerate the fertility decline.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
Humanist. 1984 Jan-Feb; 44(1):5-8, 45.Women's needs and human rights have been ignored in the ongoing political debates on family planning. It is the right of each woman to have access to contraceptives and to the essential and crucial information about reproduction and her own body's fertility and sexuality. The basic human right of every individual to choose, to decide freely, based on biological and factual information, whether or not to have children, continues to be denied to very large numbers of women. The vast majority of women in the developing world have no such options. Environmentalists and population planners continue to evade the issue, despite the price paid for this omission: the failure of many family planning programs. The correlation between "development" and population control was internationally discussed for the 1st time at the UN World Population conference in Bucharest, but not 1 word was said to show the far more convincing and clearly visible correlation between the educational status of women and declines in population growth rates. These facts continue to be ignored even today by most population experts and their funding sources, especially the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In countries where women as a group have access to education, both population growth rates and infant mortality noticeably decline. In the East and West African countries visited by this individual, it appears that family planning is making no progress. This is the case despite the fact that more and more money is spent in Africa by international family planning organizations. The primary reason why population growth is not soaring in many African countries is because infant mortality is so high, about 50% in many countries. The reason why family planning is failing in Africa is because every African man seeks to confirm his ego and his manhood by fathering as many children as possible. Male sexuality is totally out of control, not female sexuality as claimed by proponents of female circumcision and genital mutilation. There is no hope for change in settings where women are illiterate and the chattel of men. International family planning organizations, although spending millions on family planning in Africa, have entirely ignored the facts. Polygamy, as well as the failure of men to face their responsibilities for their children, are nowhere even mentioned by the international family planning establishment as reasons for the burgeoning population growth rates. Family planning programs in Africa are still almost totally directed toward women, while men--the real cause of the population growth rates--are never made to face the reality of their obligations. International family planning organizations have failed to make the information about reproduction accessible in easily comprehensive form. The "Universal Childbirth Picture Books" have been found to be easily adaptable to all environments and all cultures and explain the basic, biological facts that are shared by women everywhere.