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Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
[Unpublished] 1985 Nov 19. Presented to the Executive Board, Seventy-seventh Session, Provisional Agenda Item 18. 20 p. (EB77/27)The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has made major public health gains in the past decade. The central EPI strategy has been to deliver immunization in consonance with other health services, particularly those directed toward mothers and children. However, in the least developed countries and many other developing countries, it does not appear likely that national budgets will be sufficient by 1990 to support full immunization coverage on a sustained basis or that an adequate number of national managers can be assembled to staff effective programs. At the November 1985 meeting of the EPI Global Advisory Group, recommendations were made to accelerate global progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by immunizing all children of the world can be achieved, but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. 3 general actions needed are: 1) promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; 2) adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and 3) ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen the delivery of other primary health care interventions. The 4 specific actions needed are: 1) provide immunization at every contact point, 2) reduce drop-out rates between first and last immunizations, 3) improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas, and 4) increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. Continued efforts are also required to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak control, reinforce training and supervision, ensure quality of vaccine production and administration, and pursue research and development.
Development co-operation, 1986 review: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1986. 292 p.The 1986 annual report details the efforts and policies of the Development Assistance Committee members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (DECD). Part 1 provides an overview of development assistance by region and ways it might be improved as well as a chapter on Africa's long-term prospects. Part 2 covers current trends and policy issues in official development assistance, including volume trends and prospects, basic priorities, shifts in geographic and functional aid distribution, financial terms of aid, environmental concerns, and the role of women in development. Individual countries' assistance is covered as well as multilateral agencies. Part 3 deals with improving aid effectiveness through strengthened aid co-ordination and better policies. Separate sections cover improved development policies and coordination, technical assistance in support of improved economic management capacity, cooperation in agricultural development, and cooperation for improved energy sector management. Part 4 reviews trends in external resource flows to Sub-Saharan Africa. Annexes detail good procurement practices for official development assistance and the recommendations of the Council of the DECD on the environment and development assistance.
Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, . 52,  p.The 1984 review of the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) Regional Office in Asia and the Pacific attempts to bring out new developments, trends, and issues of the ILO programs and to illustrate broad issues with concrete and specific profiles whenever possible. The special theme of this year's issue is production and productivity improvement; this issue includes an account of ILO's assistance to governments and to employer's and workers' organization in productivity enhacement programs. The ILO program in 1984 has endeavored to assist member countries in their efforts to offset the adverse social and labor impact of the recent economic recession. Studies have been undertaken on labor migration, which in some countries may offer a relief to ailing economies. The energy sector has been another important area of concern--in particular, manpower, training, and the social implications of verious energy resources such as coal, biogas, electricity, and geothermal energy. Today workers must be equipped with the kind of vocational skills which will permit them to change occupations, often several times in their lifetime. Rural labor forces in developing countries, steeped in millenia of traditional values, must be able to face the technological advances of the 21st century. The ILO continues to provide assistance to its tripartite constituents, within the framework of the respective countries' priorities, in the development of human resources, raising living standards, improving working conditions and the environment, and the promotion of full employment. This year, for the 1st time, a full-time Adviser on International Labour Standards is providing countries advisory services on all aspects of ILO international standards setting activities. Further, new offices were opened in Colombo in November 1984 and Bejing in January 1985.
Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, . 61,  p.The International Labour Organization's (ILO) 1985 annual report for the Asia and the Pacific region summarizes the activities of a year spent in consolidating past programs and charting the course and direction of ILO's future programs. 2 major events of the year at which leading labor figures converged were the Tenth Asia and Pacific Labour Ministers' Conference and the Tenth Asian Regional Conference of the ILO. A number of recommendations, conclusions, and resolutions calling for measures to enhance the effectiveness of ILO programs and projects was suggested. A new ILO office in Beijing was set up in the beginning of the year in pursurance of ILO's policy of decentralization, bringing to 10 the number of ILO representative offices in the region. The ILO's technical assistance programs continue to promote social and economic development through human resources development, the improvement of living and working conditions, job creation, and the development of social institutions. The dynamism and diversity of the region made an impact on ILO activities during 1985 affecting such areas as technology, migration, and productivity. Programs to alleviate the plight of specific disadvantaged groups such as women, young workers, and disabled persons have also been actively pursued. This annual review of ILO activities provides information on the scope and depth of ILO's multifaceted work in this region.
[Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1984] Annuaire statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique, 1984.
Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1986. xxviii, 630 p. (ST/ESCAP/340.)The 17th edition of this statistical yearbook includes data on population, manpower, national accounts, agriculture, industry, energy, consumption, transport and communications, internal trade, external trade, wages, prices, expenditures, finance, and social statistics for the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region as a whole as well as for Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Burma, China, Cook Islands, Democratic Kampuchea, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Niue, Pacific Islands, Pakistan, Papu New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam. An appendix contains data on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Population statistics include population size, crude live birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, crude marriage rate, crude divorce rate, gross reproduction rate, net reproduction rate, population density, age-sex composition, live birth rates by maternal age, death rates by age and sex, economically active population, life expentancy, and survivors at specific ages. Social statistics cover school enrollment by level, scientists and technicians, mass communications, medical facilities, causes of death, life insurance, co-operatives, damages from disasters and accidents, and housing.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Nov; 1-4.Fiji is a group of volcanic islands located in the South Pacific. Because of the rough terrain in its center, that area is sparsely populated; most of Fiji's population live on the island coasts. Almost all indigenous Fijians are Christians and English is the official language. In 1970 Fiji became a fully sovereign and independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The British monarch appoints the governor general who in turn appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in House of Representatives. The transition to independence for Fijians was achieved in a peaceful fashion. While there are some racial tensions between the Indo-Fijians and the indigenous Fijians, the 2 major political parties and the various leaders have succeeded in maintaining order. The government of Fiji, since attaining independence, has worked hard toward economic and social progress and there have been great strides made in education, health, agriculture, and nutrition. The thrust of Fiji's economy is sugar and the 2nd component is tourism. Fiji does import a wide variety of goods but industrial development is proceeding well. Fiji encourages local and foreign investment in the hopes of promoting development and providing industrial jobs. Regional cooperation is the main element in Fiji foreign policy they joined the UN in 1970. Full diplomatic relations exist between the US and Fiji and US and Fijian officials have exchanged visits. In 1985 the US provided $1.5 million in disaster relief funds to Fiji; there is expedcted to be a bilateral aid agreement between the 2 countries in 1986. Travel notes, government and US officials, and further information are included.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.Mortality has declined in all the countries of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, but the declines have been far from uniform. Development may mean greater input into health services and public health, but it can also mean better transportation, more schools, higher wages, more job opportunities, and better housing. Each of these factors affects the health of the population. Mortality decline may be due to either a reduction of exposure to risk or an increased proportion of the population protected from the risk by immunization or other preventive measures. A disease may disappear, such as smallpox has, or a new treatment may substantially reduce case fatalities; both processes may be happening at once. The effective control of "preventable deaths" is the path to modern low mortality levels. Only a few ESCAP countries, those with reasonably accurate cause of death statistics, show modernized mortality levels. Deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases decline with modernization, and deaths from cancer increase. The U-shaped age pattern of mortality, in which infant and child deaths are predominant, becomes a J-shaped curve with greater mortality risk at older ages. Socioeconomic change affects mortality at national, community, and individual or household levels. Life expectancy at birth rises with per capita gross national product. On the individual level, mother's education, family income, family size, and child spacing all affect child mortality. Other sociobiological factors affect mortality risk on an individual level, such as late use of modern health services. Future mortality research needs to examine all these factors and cross discipinary lines.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.In the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, life expectancy at birth varies from less than 45 years in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Democratic Kampuchea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Nepal to 70 years and above in Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Generally, mortality has declined in the ESCAP region in the last 25 years. Early mortality improvements can largely be attributed to new disease control technologies, such as immunization and effective disease treatment. Large-scale epidemics became rare, as did large-scale famines. In countries where population was concentrated in urban areas, such as in Singapore and Hong Kong, and in countries where health services were extended to the rural sector, such as China, mortality fell to developed country levels. Health services are not the sole agent in this process; increasing literacy, social welfare policy, adequate housing and water supplies, sanitation, and economic growth are also participants. At the root of mortality differentials between and within countries are problems associated with differential rates of socioeconomic development, income distribution, and the inadequacy of health care systems to cope with their responsibilities. Health services alone may alleviate only some of the major health problems. The sophisticated approach of Western medicine may be inappropriate for these countries. The most prevalent health problems in the least developed countries of the ESCAP region are water and airborne infectious diseases, complicated by malnutrition. Treatment, although bringing immediate relief, may not have a lasting effect on the person who must return to a disease-ridden environment.
Working paper/Strategies for meeting basic socio-economic needs in the context of achieving the goals of population policies and programmes.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 253-66. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58.)The developing countries in the Economic ans Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region present widely different development levels. 13 countries have low incomes with per capita incomes from US $80--US $370. 8 are middle income countries with incomes from US $590--US $3830. Most of the population lives in the low income countries. These populations 1) are rural, 2) have low life expectancy, 3) have high fertility, 4) have low nutrition, and 5) are illiterate. Most people do not have their basic needs met, and they live in countries with very unequal structures of income distribution. The lower 40% of the population in these countries will not be able to reach minimum levels of satisfaction for their basic needs without a development effort that is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. The middle income countries generally have declining population growth rates, higher literacy, adequate nutrition, and a life expectancy above 60. Many of the poorest countries had increasing birth rates during the 1970s. Most of the poorest countries will have a labor force that continues to be largely agricultural and rural. Countries in Southeast and East Asia, including China, have a high economic growth potential. South Asia's per capita incomes will still remain below US $200 in the year 2000. The satisfaction of basic needs remains one of the main criteria of development; this includes health, education, food, clothing, housing, and drinking water. The key elements in countries who have improved their satisfaction of basic needs are literacy rates, women's status, equal improvement for men and women, free health care, free education, and income redistribution. A basic strategy would 1) concentrate health care on maternal and child health, sanitation, and public health; 2) give educational priority to universal primary education; and 3) improve the productivity of small holdings and concentrate on staple foods.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1985. xiv, 207 p. (ST/ESCAP/313.)This 1984 annual survey is presented in 2 parts: 1) a survey of recent economic and social development in ths UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region in the context of the world economic situation, and 2) an analysis of problems of financing development in the countries of the region. In the aftermath of the recession, financing development has emerged as a critical problem in all developing countries; with the flow of external resources slackening and external debt burdens increasing, the task of mobilizing domestic resources has become formidable, and necessary. The major sections of this report are: 1) Recovery and Persistent Problems in the World Economy, 2) Macro-economic Survey of Developing Economics in the ESCAP Region, 3) the Least Developed Countries, 4) Performance in Selected Economic Sectors, 5) International Trade and Public Finance, 6) Social Development, 7) General Background in Financing Development, 8) Private Savings, 9) Government Savings, 10) Public Enterprise Savings, 11) Government Borrowing, and 12) External Resource Inflows. One implication of this analysis is that developing countries in the ESCAP region will have to increase their domestic resource mobilization efforts. Some of the proposals to improve the prospects of net external resource inflow to developing countries are: 1) the creation of new international institutions which would insure private sector loans, 2) reforming existing institutions, 3) changing dept repayment practices so that net resource transfers increase without increasing gross transfer, 4) improving the terms of trade towards the stabilization of prices of primary commodities, and 5) strengthening financial cooperation to increase resource transfer to developing countries. The economies which fared less well in the 1980s were those heavily dependent on primary commodity exports, the least developed countries, and the island countries in the Pacific subregion; for improved performance in the economies of these countries, larger external assistance on suitable terms remains an urgent necessity.
Demography India. 1984 Jan-Dec; 13(1-2):153-67.The threshold hypothesis shares with transition theory the basic assumption that a decline in fertility is interrelated with a decline in mortality and change in the social, economic, and cultural conditions of the population. However, threshold theory fails to formulate a causal chain between fertility and the other variables and its application at the aggregate country level is limited by intracountry heterogeneity in cultural and social variables. Problematic is the fixing of the timing for a country of a decline in fertility to be inferred from the fact that some indicators of development have reached the threshold zone while others have not. This paper attempts to develope a combined index for socioeconomic development on the basis of data from 12 countries of the ESCAP region of South East Asia. Variables included were life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, adult female literacy, percentages of females economically active, GNP per capita, and percentage urban population. In 1970, 3 of the countries analyzed had a crude birth rate below 25, 6 countries had a rate between 25-40, and 3 had a rate above 40. The lowest value of the index recorded for countries of low fertility (crude birth rate below 25) and the highest value recorded for countries of high fertility (above 40) are taken as the threshold zones for the overall index. The number of countries in the threshold range increased from 5 in 1970 to 8 in 1975. With the increase in the index value, a reduction in the fertility level was noted. In contrast, where socioeconomic development was slow, fertility showed little change. Policy makers could use this system to assess which indicator could be pushed through to raise the overall index of development so as to effect a decline in fertility.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
Asian and Pacific Population Programme News. 1985 Mar; 14(1):2-5.In 1983, the ESCAP region added 44 million people, bringing its total population to 2600 million, which is 56% of the world population. The annual rate of population growth was 1.7% in 1983 compared to 2.4% in 1970-75. The urban population rose from 23.4% in 1970 to 26.4% in 1983, indicative of the drift from rural areas to large cities. In 1980, 12 of the world's 25 largest cities were in the ESCAP region, and there is concern about the deterioration of living conditions in these metropoles. In general, however, increasing urbanization in the developing countries of the ESCAP region has not been directly linked to increasing industrialization, possibly because of the success of rural development programs. With the exception of a few low fertility countries, a large proportion of the region's population is concentrated in the younger age groups; 50% of the population was under 22 years of age in 1983 and over 1/3 was under 15 years. In 1983, there were 69 dependents for every 100 persons of working age, although declines in the dependency ratio are projected. The region's labor force grew from 1100 million in 1970 to 1600 million in 1983; this growth has exceeded the capacity of country economies to generate adequate employment. The region is characterized by large variations in life expectancy at birth, largely reflecting differences in infant mortality rates. Whereas there are less than 10 infant deaths/1000 live births in Japan, the corresponding rates in Afghanistan and India are 203 and 121, respectively. Maternal-child health care programs are expected to reduce infant mortality in the years ahead. Finally, fertility declines have been noted in almost every country in the ESCAP region and have been most dramatic in East Asia, where 1983's total fertility rate was 40% lower than that in 1970-75. Key factors behind this decline include more aggressive government policies aimed at limiting population growth, developments in the fields of education and primary health care, and greater availability of contraception through family planning programs.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.
[Unpublished] . 37 p.This document reports the activities of the Regional Mobile Team on Population Education in Asia and the Pacific. In 1973-81, the team, which is responsible for the Regional Sectoral Program on Population Education, undertook 321 missions to provide technical assistance to member states. This assistance was in the areas of needs assessment, planning and implementation of national population education programs, development of curriculum materials, training of key personnel, research, translation of educational materials, project review and evaluation, and establishment of clearing house services. Largely through the help of the Regional Mobile Team, there are now national population education programs in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Micronesia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Nepal, Palau, Pakistan, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Tongo. In the early stages, assistance focuses on curriculum and materials development and personnel training; in countries with more advanced programs, the emphasis is on research and evaluation. The Regional Mobile Team has attempted to develop a reservoir of national expertise and capability. The population education program is based on the premise that intercountry programs are justified only to the extent that they are in support of country programs and activities. The effectiveness of this regional work was reflected in a 1981 survey of participants in training seminars. 115 of the 128 respondents indicated that their participation in training activities helped their work in their own countries and enhanced their status as population educators. At this point, there is a need to reach out to other countries in the region that are not fully aware of the seriousness of the population problem and the feasibility of population education as a strategy for development.
Study and review of the human settlements situation in Asia and the Pacific, volume 1: regional overview of the human settlements situation.
[Bangkok, Thailand], ESCAP,  viii, 70 p.The deteriorating quality of life in most Asian cities is an issue of growing concern for member governments of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP); overburdened infrastructure and services, proliferating slums and high population densities, pollution, traffic congestion, and rising crime rates are among the most visible consequences of rapid urbanization. Aware of the likelihood of a worsening urban environment in the years ahead, ESCAP's member countries have launched remedial programs and projects on numerous related fronts in recent years. This study is the 1st effort to collect, compile, and analyze the wealth of country-specific information on human settlements activities and conditions in the ESCAP region. This report consists of 2 volumes: 1) the regional overview on the human settlements situation in Asia and the Pacific and a report to review the draft outline on the human settlements situation in the ESCAP region, and 2) the monographs prepared by the national counterparts from the region. The ESCAP region included in this study extends from Iran in the west to Mongolia in the north, Japan in the northeast, and the Cook Islands in the southeast. It is evident that all the sample countries are attempting through national policy and programs to deal with the challenges of urbanization and urban shelter needs. Each country is reviewed as to the basic conditions of human settlement, settlement policy and programs, and financial and administrative structures. Overall, until the economies improve in these Asian and Pacific countries, it is unrealistic to assume that significantly greater allocations can be expected for human settlements. Thus, for most countries in the region, overall economic performance is the key to greater investment. Policies and programs are becoming more comprehensive; they are considering social and economic dimensions of settlement issues beyond those of mere physical form. Most important, the focus is on meeting basic needs at minimal standards--a commitment to improve conditions for the masses, not just privileged groups.
Regional Course on Social Communication for Women Professionals in Population Programmes, Shanghai, China, 23 August to 3 September 1982, course report.
[Bangkok], Unesco, 1983. 34 p.This pamphlet summarizes the proceedings of the regional course on Social Communication for Women Professionals in Population/Development Programs held in Shanghai, China, in 1982. The gathering, attended by 12 participants from 10 countries, was organized by the United Nations Educational, Scienticfic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in cooperation with all All-China Women's Federation and the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development. The objectives of the course were: to study communication techniques ans strategies in support of national development with special reference to population programs; to study the role of women in the national development process, especially in terms of information, education, and communication activities; to delineate specific aspects of population and development programs in which women can play significant roles; and to exchange experiences. It was suggested that women's organizations can provide governments with an accurate picture of women's participation in national development. However, this requires adoption of health, education, legal, and labor force indicators to measure the degree of female participation. There is also a need to involve educated professional women in the effort to raise the status of the masses of women. Each country needs to take an inventory of all groups and organizations interested in women's developemnt and seek to involve them in mass publicity campaigns to explain the importance of mobilizing women in the developing effort. Women's groups can act as liaisons between the government and local women. The development of national communication strategies should involve identification of prevalent social issues, establishment of linkages between these issues and development, and identification of the role that the mass media can play to project women in a nonsexist fashion. Finally, it was recommended that governments of the Asian-Pacific Region should aim to improve coordination between government and nongovernmental organizations.