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  1. 1

    Reproductive function in the human male.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group

    Geneva, WHO, 1973. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 520) 34 p.

    After summarizing current WHO research directed at the control of male fertility focusing on 1) gametogenesis and ultrastructure of the testis; 2) cytogenetic aspects; 3) hormonal regulation; 4) epididymal function (the maturation and preservation of spermatozoa); 5) vas deferens; and 6) semen analysis; recommendations for further research in the area are made. Studies are required on the following aspects of reproductive function in the male: 1) structural and cytochemical organization of the various classes of germ cells in humans and nonhuman primates; 2) interstitial tissues and the components of the blood-testis barrier and their role in the regulation of gametogenic function of the testis; 3) structural and functional state of the testis during growth and development, during aging, and in most histopathological conditions leading to partial or complete sterility; 4) the role of meiotic chromosome aberration in degeneration of germ cells; 5) role of abnormal chromosomes as an etiological factor in male infertility; 6) binding and metabolism of androgens and their effects on the seminiferous tubule; 7) role of gonadotropins, particularly follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in regulation of spermatogenesis; 8) identification of tubular factors involved in regulation of FSH secretion; 9) elucidation of epididymal function in a number of species; 10) characteristics of sperm surface; 11) nature of epididymal plasma and the factors that control it; 12) anatomy, physiology, and functional role of human vas deferens, with emphasis on blood supply; 13) effect of vasectomy on male reproductive function and possible immunological sequelae of this operation; 14) relationship between fertility and such characteristics of sperm as number, motility, and morphology; 15) biochemical characteristics of the nucleus, acrosome, and midpiece of sperm, and their relationship to sperm motility and fertility; 16) chemical nature of substances secreted specifically in different accessory sex organs; 17) the possible relationship between autoimmune phenomenoa and testicular disease; and 18) immunological sequelae of vasectomy. In addition, studies on the cryobiology of human and animal sperm are expected to yield information on the biology of sperm.
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  2. 2

    Cyproterone acetate (CPA) a potential male contraceptive: further studies on the interactions with endocrine parameters.


    Berlin, Germany, WHO-CCCR, [1978]. 11 p.

    This unpublished paper is the transcript of a conference proceeding, but the figures referred to textually are not included in the document. This study evaluated the effects of medium dose cyproterone acetate (CPA), 10-30 mg/day, on gonadotropin and peripheral androgen levels. On the average, luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were about 35% lower during CPA administration; similar observations were made for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). CPA medication resulted in a significant reduction of LH response to LH-releasing hormone (RH); FSH increments following LH-RH stimulation were considerably smaller than those of LH and were hardly distinguishable from spontaneous FSH fluctuations. LH-RH double stimulation resulted in a slow but continuous rise of T without distinct peaks of borderline significance. CPA administration caused a highly significant elevation of serum prolactin in 7/10 males. In summary, medium dose CPA exerted the following effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis during the 1st 12 weeks of administration: 1) suppression of basal LH, FSH, T, and dihydroT; 2) abolition of the spiking phenomenon of androgen secretion; 3) suppression of LH-RH mediated secretion of LH and FSH; and 4) elevation of basal prolactin.
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