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Adult literacy programs and socio-economic transformation among the rural poor: Lessons from a local NGO in Arua district, Uganda.
Art'ishake. 2006 Summer; (3):22-25.In this paper, we examine the role of adult literacy programs in transforming the lives of the rural poor in Uganda. Based on the work of a local NGO--the Uganda Rural Literacy and Community Development Association (URLCODA), operating in Arua district--we argue that participating in literacy activities lays a solid foundation for continuing education/training, social development, and active participation in democratic processes. URLCODA's project therefore complements the global efforts to achieve some of the UN's Millennium Development Goals. The challenges faced in maximizing the benefits of literacy to participants and possible remedies are highlighted. (author's)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Dec; 8(2):6.A person's ability to read and write in any language with understanding is deeply tied to his or her survival in society. Literacy's benefits are social, cultural, political and economic, and influence a person's self-esteem, confidence and personal empowerment. Latest data from the 2006 Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report show that 132 million of the 771 million people worldwide without literacy skills are aged 15 to 24. The number remains staggering despite an increase in the youth literacy rate to 85 per cent, from 75 per cent in 1970. According to the UNESCO-commissioned EFA report, expanded access to formal schooling contributed to the increase in the global youth literacy rate. In Asia and the Pacific, 73 million people aged 15 to 24 who cannot read or write live in South and West Asia, the largest number of illiterate youth population in the region. The literacy rate for young people in South and West Asia is estimated at 73 per cent. There are 45.7 million illiterate youths in India, 14.74 million in Bangladesh, and 11.12 million in Pakistan. (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 May; 47-49.Responsible for half the world's food production, women play a key role in sustainable food security, particularly in developing countries. Yet they have considerably less access to land and investment funds than men. That is why microcredit, celebrated by an International Year in 2005, often seems like the only solution to break poverty's vicious circle. An example: In the province of Chiapas (Mexico) women are taking advantage of both loans and literacy classes, provided by a programme UNESCO supports. (excerpt)
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2004 Jul. 15 p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of workshops supported by UNESCO and UNFPA. The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and medial professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessment of their potential readers. At the workshops, participants go through exercises helping them to fine-tune their sensitivity to gender issues and how these affect people's risks of HIV/AIDS. The analysis of these assessments at the workshops serves as the basis for identifying the priority issues to be addressed in the booklets. They are also exposed to principles of writing for people with limited reading skills. Each writer then works on his or her booklet with support from the group. (excerpt)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV / AIDS, UNESCO, 10 May 2005.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005.  p. (DG/2005/074)It is a pleasure to welcome you to this information session on UNESCO's role, aims and programme in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We are very lucky to have with us Dr Peter Piot, whose excellent work and results as the Executive Director of UNAIDS have recently been underscored by his re-appointment for a new five-year mandate from this year. I am also delighted to welcome Mrs Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador with a special brief for the fight against HIV/AIDS, who will also address you this afternoon. In my introductory remarks to you today, I would like to briefly outline the process through which UNESCO has engaged with the HIV/AIDS challenge during the past few years. That engagement has taken place within an overall context marked by three main features: first, the continuing spread of the epidemic; second, its devastating impact on whole societies and their key institutions (such as education systems) as well as upon communities and families; and, third, the emphasis upon treatment as the major response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004. 55 p. (ED-2004/WS/16)The World Education Forum held in Dakar (April, 2000) reemphasized and reiterated the importance of inter-agency partnerships, collaboration and coordination in pursuance of the EFA goals. This facilitated the launching of a number of multi-partner initiatives that focused on specific EFA-related areas and problems requiring special attention as well as the reinforcing of existing ones. EFA flagship initiatives were considered to constitute, among others, one of the mechanisms that would contribute in enhancing and strengthening multi-agency partnership and coherence on EFA related goals. Three years after Dakar, the EFA flagships continue to expand in terms of number of initiatives launched as well as their scope and membership. At present, nine initiatives have been established, involving United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies and NGOs. (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 Nov; 2-3.It has been a landmark year for development. Antipoverty campaigns and the Live 8 concerts helped turn up the heat on the leaders of the G8 group of industrialized countries, who raised hopes by pledging an extra US$50 billion of aid to Africa. That was followed by an EU members' pledge to increase aid to 0.7% of gross national income by 2015. While this represents a welcome boost of resources, the US$1.16 billion per annum specifically targeted at basic education remains far short of the estimated US$5.6 billion funding gap required to reach universal primary education and gender parity alone. Peter Smith, UNESCO's Assistant Director-General for Education, is not satisfied: "I want to see more commitment from donors," he stresses. But developing countries must raise their spending too, or donor fatigue will set in, he says: "They will say 'Who wants to invest in something that the people who own it don't want to invest in'." (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 Nov; 4-5.Kokabar is something of a celebrity in Afghanistan's Parvan province because she ran an underground beauty parlour during the Taliban years, when make-up salons were banned. "The first time the Taliban entered our province, they smashed up my shop and beat up my husband. After that I worked in secret with local brides," she says. Now she has two salons in the bazaar in Charikar city, north of Kabul. She is the inspiration and master trainer for dozens of girls who want to learn literacy and some skills they can use to secure their future. This is a UNICEF-supported scheme, one of several ways the NGO is trying to reach the children, especially girls, left with no hope of an education in a country blighted by a quarter of a century of war - and the Taliban's ban on girls setting foot in class. Crammed into a tiny room with a large mirror, ten of them are watching Noorzia, 15, taking tips from Kokabar as she prepares the face of Samia, 14, with heavy make-up for a "Night of Henna" ceremony, when the groom's family visit the bride's home before the wedding. (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 May; 47-49.María Pérez Pérez, from the district of Zinacantán, never thought she would be able to learn to hold a pencil at 48, or pick up an exercise book and scan the lines to make sense of its content. "I didn't go to school when I was a girl because I had to look after the animals, and help my parents, who were very poor. But now I regret never having made the effort to learn," says María, who like the vast majority of indigenous women, only speaks her mother tongue. But she is one of the 345 women talking literacy classes, thanks to UNESCO's support of the Alternativa Solidaria Chiapas (Al Sol), a non-governmental organization that provides microcredits to poor women so they can raise their own and their families' living standards. One of the 25 groups of women enrolled in the literacy programme holds its classes in Zinacantán, a municipality located around 10 kilometers from the colonial city of San Cristóbal de las Casas and a stronghold of the Tzotzils, one of the main ethnic groups to have descended from the Mayans. Every fortnight, around a dozen women, all of them adults with children, meet for an hour's class given by their teacher, Rosalinda Bolom, who is herself Tzotzil and speaks in their language - without which her work would be impossible. (excerpt)
Closing the gender gap: literacy for women and girls - includes related information on UNESCO in Nepal and Burkina Faso. [Combler le fossé entre les sexes : l'alphabétisation des femmes et des filles - sont également fournies des informations sur l'UNESCO au Népal et au Burkina Faso]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1): p..Thirty-three-year-old Binta Badji felt an urgent "need" to learn to read and write after being unable to take notes or read class handouts during a three-day training course for village women on food processing. This motivated the Senegalese mother of two to join 60 other women in a literacy class. They were taught how to read and write in their native languages and to do simple arithmetic. Sajjeda Begum is one of the few female administrators of a ration shop in the Dakshinpuri section of New Delhi. The 49-year-old mother of five, whose husband is unemployed due to ill health, was functionally illiterate until the age of 35 when she enrolled in a yearlong literacy course which also taught her basic accounting. Not only was she able to obtain her present job, she and other newly-literate friends became social activists, lobbying for clean drinking water, sanitation, drainage, hygiene and garbage collection in their working-class suburb. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2001 Oct.  p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of UNESCO workshops partially funded by the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA). The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and media professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessments of their potential readers. At the workshops, participants go through exercises helping them to fine tune their sensitivity to gender issues and how these affect people's risks of HIV/AIDS. The analysis of these assessments at the workshops serves as the basis for identifying the priority issues to be addressed in the booklets. They are also exposed to principles of writing for people with limited reading skills. Each writer then works on his or her booklet with support from the group. The booklets address a wide-range of issues normally not included in materials for HIV/AIDS such as the secondary status of girls and women in the family, the "sugar daddy" phenomenon, wife inheritance, the hyena practice, traditional medicinal practices superstitions, home-based care and living positively with AIDS. They have one thing in common- they influence greatly a person's safety from contracting HIV/AIDS. We hope that these booklets will inspire readers to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face in their day-to-day relationships. In so doing, they might reach a conclusion that the responsibility is theirs to save their own lives and those of their loved ones from HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Me, you and AIDS. Kenya. A product of a UNESCO-DANIDA workshop for preparation of post-literacy materials and radio programmes for women and girls in Africa.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2000 Jan.  p.Though the booklets are intended for use with neo-literate women and out-of-school girls, the messages in the stories and the radio programme scripts that accompany them are also relevant for use as supplementary reading materials in formal schools for readers of both sexes. The subjects of the booklets, based on the needs assessments, reflect a wide range of needs and conditions of African women - from Senegal to Kenya, from Mali to South Africa, from Niger to Malawi. A list of common concerns has emerged. These include: HIV-AIDS, domestic violence, the exploitation of girls employed as domestic servants, the lack of positive role models for women and girls, the economic potential of women through small business development, the negative consequences of child marriage, and the need for a more equal division of labour between men and women in the home. Each booklet describes one way of treating a subject of high priority to African women. In the process, the authors have attempted to render the material gender-sensitive. They have tried to present African women and girls and their families in the African context and view the issues and problems from their perspective. We hope these booklets will inspire readers, as they did their authors, to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face every day. The questions accompanying each booklet will help readers ask questions and find answers to some of the issues which also touch their own lives. How the characters in these booklets cope with specific situations, their trials and tribulations, can serve as lessons for women and men living together in 21st Century Africa. (excerpt)
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology [MIT], Poverty Action Lab, 2003 Sep. 25,  p. (Poverty Action Lab Paper No. 4)This paper presents the results of a two-year randomized evaluation of a large scale remedial education program, conducted in Mumbai and Vadodara, India. The remedial education program hires young women from the community to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children who reach standard three or four without having mastered these competencies. The program, implemented by a NGO in collaboration with the government, is extremely cheap (it cost 5 dollars per child per year), and is easily replicable: It has been implemented in 20 Indian cities, and reached tens of thousands of children. We find the program to be very effective: On average, it increased learning by 0.15 standard deviations in the first year, and 0.25 in the second year. The gains are the largest for children at the bottom of the distribution: Children in the bottom third gain 0.2 standard deviations in the first year, and 0.32 in the second year. In math, they gain 0.51 standard deviation in the second year. The results are similar in the two grade levels, and in the two cities. At the margin, extending this program would be up to 12-16 times more cost effective than hiring new teachers. (author's)
Monday Developments. 2003 Sep 8; 21(16):14.The focus of International Literacy Day on Sept. 8 will be literacy and gender, as the United Nations continues the International Literacy Decade announced two years ago. (excerpt)
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-17. (Series 1, Pt. 4)The main theme of all the materials that were abstracted and reviewed in the area of population education in literacy is that literacy programs and population education in the non-formal setting must be linked with the real problems and needs of the people if they are to be effective. Highlighted in the abstracts presented are the strategies, guidelines, procedures and the processes used in making population education in literacy programs acceptable to the millions of illiterates, out-of-school youths and adults throughout the Asian region, who are preoccupied with satisfying their immediate needs for food and water. Two successful experimental functional literacy-population education projects carried out by the Adult Education Division of the Ministry of Education in Thailand and the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement are reported. Most of the documents reviewed have been both enhanced and enriched by the extensive work and experiences of the UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania and by the materials of the World Education which are a result of 18 years of practical field work in literacy.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, Education Advisory Service, .  p.Girls' education is considered as one of the most effective development investments a country can make. Its participation in school remains low in many countries, often lagging well behind that of boys. In a few countries, this gap in participation is actually widening. In response, the World Bank has created its own lending and nonlending programs and supported programs undertaken jointly with other donors and partner institutions to improve girls' educational opportunities. This paper focuses on the World Bank's assistance to client countries with especially large gender disparities in basic education enrollments. Its assistance takes many forms, including 1) targeting help where it is most needed; 2) providing resources and technical assistance to help identify barrier to girls' education and create informed policy responses; 3) creating comprehensive responses; and 4) working with donors and partners. The pamphlet presents summaries of program results in Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and the Republic of Yemen.
PROMOTION & EDUCATION.. 1999; 6(2):10-2.This article presents advocacy strategies for helping to increase the literacy rate among Muslim girls in South Central Asia. Data from UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) indicated that in 1995 only 15% of female in Afghanistan were literate; in Bangladesh, the percentage was a little over 26%. In India, the female literacy rate stood at about 38%; in Pakistan it stood at just over 24%. In fact, only half of the total number of school-aged children in South Asia were enrolled in school, and 42% dropped out by grade 5. The reasons for this high rate of dropout were poor quality education, poverty, child labor, (in the case of girls) taking care of younger siblings, household chores, and early marriage. In response to this problem, the UNFPA developed an advocacy strategy that focused on three important approaches--1) building coalitions with like-minded NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and institutions, 2) effective use of the mass media dependent on developing excellent relationships with the media s key representatives, and 3) working directly with communities. The six major steps in the communication strategy may be applied to an advocacy strategy according to a method similar to that employed in IEC strategy planning. These steps are as follows: 1) data gathering and analysis, 2) the segmenting of the target audience, 3) the formulation of specific objectives, 4) the formulation of an action plan or management plan, 5) the creation of methods and channels of communication, and 6) monitoring and evaluation. Although the advocacy campaign issues have been addressed, the implementation of these strategies still depends on government support and participation of NGOs.
Tunis, Tunisia, IPPF, Arab World Region, 1997. 32 p.This document contains the 1996-97 annual report of the Arab World Region (AWR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The report opens with a brief note from the IPPF President and Secretary General followed by more detailed messages from the Chair of the Regional Council on future challenges and the Regional Director on the importance of democracy, effectiveness, and partnerships. The introductory materials include a summary of an IPPF regional seminar on the role of volunteer and executive bodies, a joint European Union (EU) and AWR project to expand family planning (FP) services in the region, and the planned upgrading of management information systems for regional FP Associations (FPAs). Separate sections of the report cover actions taken in the areas of 1) advocacy for women's sexual/reproductive health (SRH) rights in Yemen; 2) empowering women through training and literacy programs; 3) youth (peer education, a youth center and youth camps, and activities in Jerusalem); 4) male participation (motivating religious leaders); 5) operationalizing SRH rights (promoting the concept of sexual health and combatting AIDS); 6) training (standardizing skills and promoting reproductive health); 7) services (tools to improve quality of care, harmonizing service statistics, developing community-based services, emergency services); 8) operations research; 9) partnership; and 10) unmet needs in the horn of Africa (a reproductive health project and provision of electricity to a poor community). The annual report ends by providing financial information about the IPPF grant allocation to AWR FPAs in 1996 and about EU grants for 1993-97.
JICA NEWSLETTER. 1996 Nov; 6(4):2-6.Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.
VACCINE WEEKLY. 1994 Dec 19; 12-3.According to a United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report, which evaluated progress toward fulfillment of the 29 recommendations of the Childhood Pact signed in 1993 by 22 of Brazil's 27 provincial governors, large-scale vaccination programs have been successful while attempts to improve education have not. The pact covered the rights of children and adolescents, the reduction of infant mortality, and improved health and education services. Massive vaccination efforts have eradicated polio from Brazil and reduced measles from 23,000 cases in 1992 to 124 cases in 1993 and 14 cases, to date, in 1994. However, 77% of primary school students are over the expected age for their educational level; plans to increase literacy among adolescents who lack primary education were frustrated, and teacher's strikes in many states cut into their time with students. In 1993, classes were suspended in 10 states to protest poor salaries and a lack of respect for teachers, another issue to be addressed by the pact. Provision of lunches for at least 180 days of the year in order to prevent malnutrition and boost school attendance in the poorest areas was also in the pact, but 17 of the 22 states which signed the pact have yet to do implement lunch programs. UNICEF, the executive secretary of the pact, has released a document, "Expectations for 1995-1998," suggesting renewal of the pact in combination with other measures to ensure the survival and development of Brazil's children.
New York, New York, SEEDS, 1995. 20 p. (SEEDS No. 17)Mozambique has suffered through centuries of colonial rule by the Portuguese, their bitter and destructive departure in 1975, 16 years of civil war, and severe drought. The end of the drought and of the conflict occurred in 1992, and the newly-elected government is struggling to deal with the absolute poverty of 80% of the population and one of the highest national debts in the world. An agricultural initiative in land ("Green Zones") surrounding large cities has sought to increase agricultural productivity. Special cooperatives were organized for this purpose and to improve the standard of living for women and their children. The cooperatives address irrigation needs, building construction, child care, literacy needs, and malnutrition. Costs are covered by development bank loans. The Green Zones operate as a self-help initiative and are served by a General Union of Cooperatives (GUC), largely run by women. Today, the GUC serves 5400 members grouped in 182 cooperatives (all but one headed by women). Individual cooperatives function democratically. Members pay themselves a regular salary, and individual cooperatives can secure loans from the GUC. GUC members can also relate to the organization through local unions which represent 10-15 cooperatives each. The most critical role of the GUC is the marketing of produce, but the organization also provides basic equipment, conducts workshops, evaluates activities, assists with ownership disputes, and helps solve problems. The largest source of income is chicken production. The GUC also provides management training courses and child care support. The financial support for the GUC comes from the international community and from nongovernmental organizations. The Green Zone cooperatives of Maputo have been particularly successful, and the UN Children's Fund is attempting to replicate this program in the Green Zones of Beira where different conditions demand different solutions. Lessons learned include 1) it is difficult to transplant development models, 2) people must see benefits, 3) projects should be realistic, 4) marketing is pivotal, 5) women need to secure assets in their own right, 6) economic needs can rarely be addressed in isolation, 7) such projects can empower women, and 8) there is power in numbers.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:118.This Decree approves the Plan of Operations entered into by the Government of Honduras and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) with respect to women and children for the years 1987-91. The general objective of the Plan is to monitor and improve the situation of women and children in Honduras by means of providing the following services: 1) early attention to and development of children; 2) basic services for rural women and children; and 3) intersectoral social planning and promotion of infancy. Among the specific services to be provided are literacy training and adult education for women, infant nutrition, and programs of social support for women and children. Further provisions of the Decree set forth the details of the Plan for the year 1987, as well as provisions on past agreements between the Government of Honduras and UNICEF, monitoring and evaluation, and the contributions of the Government of Honduras and UNICEF, among other things. UNICEF's contribution is US$1,465,000. (full text)
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:204, 594-5.The UN General Assembly Resolution No. 44/127, December 15, 1989, on International Literacy Year (ILY) begin with the General Assembly recalling past resolutions relevant to literacy, i.e., the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, where the right of every individual to education is recognized, and the realization that eradication of illiteracy is one of the paramount objectives of the International Development Strategy for the Third UN Development Decade and should become one of the objectives of the strategy for the 4th UN development decade, and that illiteracy seriously hinders the process of economic and social development and the cultural and spiritual advancement of society, and that functional literacy and adequate education represents an indispensable element for development and for the harnessing of science, technology, and human resources for economic and social progress. The resolution commends the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which has assumed the role of lead organization for ILY, for its work to ensure adequate preparation for ILY, and commends those Governments establishing national committees and programs aimed at meeting the objectives of the ILY. The Assembly expresses its appreciation to the specialized agencies and other organizations of the UN for their contribution to the preparation for ILY; welcomes the convening of the World Conference on Education for All, to be held in Thailand in March 1990 under the joint sponsorship of the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the UN Development Program, the UN Children's Fund, and the World Bank. It invites relevant organizations to take appropriate measures towards achieving the objectives of ILY, requests wide publicity to the activities and measures to be undertaken during ILY, and requests a report on the implementation of the program for ILY.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1991; (34):17-20.In May 1991, UNESCO and the Ministry of Education of Pakistan sponsored a Regional Workshop for the Integration of Population Education in Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All in Islamabad, Pakistan. Prior to the workshop, resource persons and experts met to develop guidelines for participants that were geared towards curriculum and material needs and core population education messages. 1 workshop group addressed integration of population education messages into primary education and the other into literacy programs. All participants observed and analyzed the problems and needs of a Muslim community and Saidpur village. The 1st group visited primary schools and spoke to teachers. The participants agreed that population education messages should be integrated into social studies, science, languages, and religion subjects at grade levels 3-5. The messages should include population related beliefs and values, problems of population growth, small family size, responsible parenthood, sex preference, population and development, the role of elders, and improving the status of women. They tested 4 of 11 developed lesson plans. Both teachers and students were generally pleased, but believed that posters and illustrations would better the plans. The other group conducted a needs assessment survey among 27 Muslim families. Participants found >100 population related issues that needed to be addressed in literacy programs. These issues fit into 6 categories and the group focused on social and cultural values and beliefs. Participants developed materials that highlighted several topics, such as early marriage and preference for males. They used puppet shows, puzzle games, posters and discussions, and story telling with pictures to communicate the messages. Puppet shows were the most popular method among housewives.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1990 Nov. 28 p.Implementing the World Summit Declaration on Africa's Children and Africa's Future will be a complicated, protracted and expensive operation that will take decades and billions of dollars. It will also take a readjustment of priorities for both the governments of Africa and governments in the developed world. The resources exist provided that priorities are adjusted to come up with the $7US billion required to achieve these far reaching goals. (This is less than the $9US billion paid annually by sub-Saharan Africa to service debts in 1989). There are 7 goals set by the Convention on the Rights of the Child: reduce 1990 under 5 child mortality rates by 33% or 70/per 1000 births, reduce maternal mortality rates by 50% of 1990 levels; reduce severe and moderate malnutrition among children under 5 by 50% of 1990 levels; universal access to safe drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal; universal access to basic education and completion of primary education by 80% of primary school aged children; reduce adult illiteracy by 50% of 1990 levels, with emphasis on female illiteracy; protect children in especially difficult circumstances such as war and natural disaster. Further, the role of women, maternal health and family planning must be strengthened if there is to be any social change as well as basic education and literacy.