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Journal of North African Studies. 2008 Mar; 13(1):55-73.This paper examines the current efforts being made in Morocco in the field of women's education and evaluates the success of the Moroccan Development Model in the field of women's education by examining the topic through three lenses: international aid agencies, Moroccan government and royal efforts and the Moroccan Women's Movement. Consideration of the historical, religious and economic frameworks for each actor maintains priority within the study as a means of evaluating the progress made to date, the current status of women's education and the long-term goals and timeframes. The findings within this paper are primarily based on UN statistics, ratings, and definitions as well as other reputable sources such as the World Bank. Sources used include magazine articles, websites, academic journals and papers, and sociological, political and anthropological books on Morocco and women. It must be noted that this evaluation focuses on Anglophone and Francophone sources only and does not consider Arabophone sources. (author's)
Evaluation of a community level nutrition information system for action in a rural community of Zaria, northern Nigeria.
Annals of African Medicine. 2004; 3(3):120-125.The aim was to improve evidence-based action at the community level, UNICEF developed a nutrition information management strategy called Community Level Nutrition Information System for Action (COLNISA). It uses a participatory cycle of assessment, analysis and action to solve nutritional and health related problems. Structured questionnaires were administered to mothers with children under the age of five in 67 households before intervention and 24 months later. Showed statistically significant changes in maternal literacy [7(10%) vs. 24(36%)] and engagement in income generating activities [17(26%) vs. 54(81%)]. Similarly, the proportion of mothers attending antenatal care during pregnancy increased almost six-fold [7(10%) vs. 40(59%)]. Significant improvements were also observed in mothers' knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding [21(32%) vs. 62(93%)], practices of complementary feeding [11(16%) vs. 39(58%)] and oral rehydration therapy [16(24%) vs. 47(70%)]. Furthermore, there were significant increases in the proportion of under fives that were growth monitored [4(5%) vs. 46(83%)] and fully immunized [7(10%) vs. 22(33%)]. Conversely, there was a reduction in the proportion of stunted, wasted and underweight children [51(77%), 11(17%) and 41(61%)] vs. [50(75%), 8(12%) and 33(49%)]. The changes in nutritional indices were however, not statistically significant. This study shows that the COLNISA strategy has a positive impact on basic social, health and nutritional indices and engenders community participation. A controlled trial is however advocated before its wholesale application. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2005. 48 p.HIV/AIDS has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world, particularly in Southern Africa. To curb its spread, political leaders as well as health care and development specialists and practitioners have made concerted efforts to generate awareness and introduce education relating to this disease. Nevertheless, despite the abundance and availability of educational programmes aimed at the general public on HIV/AIDS, people in poor countries are dying faster than ever before, especially in Southern Africa. This puzzle leaves observers asking questions, such as "Why is this happening?", "Why has the infection rate increased?", "Are the educational materials reaching the right people?", "Are they affecting people who are at greatest risk?", "What is missing or wrong with them?", and "Where are the information gaps?". (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Jun; 26(2): p..The UN Population Fund has launched major initiatives to aid sub-Saharan Africa and women, its Executive Director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, told the Population Commission on 21 February. In 1987, the Fund devised a Comprehensive aid strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world with the fastest growing population, highest fertility and mortality rates, and the greatest need for population assistance. Awareness of the implications of population growth and movement has increased dramatically among leaders of African countries over the past five years, she said. The Fund has also strengthened its capacity to deal with issues concerning women, population and development. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2003 Sep-Nov; 40(3): p..The United Nations was honoured in 1965--for the fourth time--when the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for playing a vital role in fostering "the brotherhood among nations and the furtherance of peace". This award was a recognition of the vital role UNICEF has carved for itself in the pursuit of basic human needs and rights of all children. An entity dealing initially with a "minor, peripheral problem"--it was created on a temporary basis to deal with the emergency needs and post-war crises facing Europe's many helpless children--UNICEF has evolved into the world's "never slumbering conscience". Recognizing that the children of today are the arbiters of tomorrow's peace, the award underscores the importance of cooperation among Governments, the United Nations and international and non-governmental organizations in striving to improve the condition of children. (excerpt)
Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2000 Jul-Sep;  p..Research question: What is the status of antenatal care among pregnant women in India? Objective: To assess the status of antenatal care for pregnant women in India. Sampling design: WHO 30 cluster survey methodology with certain modifications incorporating information on female literacy and distance of the village has been used. Setting: Survey covered about nineteen thousand pregnant mothers from 90 districts of the country. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: The characteristics of sample households for pregnant women were broadly in proportion to the characteristics of the all India population. About 89% of the pregnant women availed antenatal visits of which 62% had received three or more ANC visits. Those receiving the second dose of TT or booster dose were about 78%. About 73% of the pregnant women received IFA tablets during their pregnancy. About 53% of the pregnant women had full package of ANC i.e. availed 3 or more ANC visits, both the doses of TT/ boster and IFA tablets. The proportion of pregnant women who availed full ANC package was lower in rural as compared to urban areas, lowest for ST followed by SC; higher for literate women as compared to illiterate women. The proportion of Institutional deliveries managed by hospitals and health centres was about 41%, it being higher among literate women and in urban areas. Conclusion: The literacy of women is the key to improve antenatal care of pregnant women. Hence efforts should be made to have Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities targeted to educate the mothers especially in rural areas. The tribal, small and inaccessible villages and the states of Bihar, Rajasthan, UP, MP and North Eastern states (combined) should be focused and targeted in the RCH programme. (author's)
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2001 Nov; 7(6):956-965.The infant mortality rates for 1978 and 1998 of 16 Arab countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region were studied. The data were extracted from World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund sources. The impact of demographic, social, perinatal care and economic indicators on infant mortality rates in 1998 was studied using Spearman rank coefficient to detect significant correlations. All countries, except Iraq, showed a sharp decline in rates from 1978 to 1998. Infant mortality rates were directly related to population size, annual total births, low birth weight and maternal mortality ratios. Also, infant mortality rates were inversely related to literacy status of both sexes, annual gross national product per capita and access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. vii, 32 p. (World Bank Policy Research Report)This conclusion presents an important challenge to us in the development community. What types of policies and strategies promote gender equality and foster more effective development? This report examines extensive evidence on the effects of institutional reforms, economic policies, and active policy measures to promote greater equality between women and men. The evidence sends a second important message: policymakers have a number of policy instruments to promote gender equality and development effectiveness. (excerpt)
Spotlight. 2003 May 30-Jun 5; 22(46): p..J. Bill Musoke, Country Representatives of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), has been in Nepal for more than couple of years. Musoke, who has been involved in the implementation and execution of the UNFPA's major programs, spoke to Keshab Poudel on various population-related issues. (excerpt)
POPLINE. 2003 Mar-Apr; 25:2.A monumental effort by UNICEF and Afghanistan's interim administration in 2002 succeeded in enrolling one million girls - out of 3 million students - in classes last year. But Bellamy said those numbers were still unacceptably low. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
Demographic yearbook. Special issue: population ageing and the situation of elderly persons. Annuaire demographique. Edition speciale: vieillissement de la population et situation des personnes agees.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistical Division, 1993. viii, 855 p.This is the second of two volumes presenting global demographic data for 1991. "In this volume, the focus is on population ageing and on characteristics of the elderly population. The tables show how the age structure of the population has changed in the process of the demographic transition. Also presented are changes in fertility, mortality and living arrangements over the period of forty years from 1950-1990. Characteristics of the elderly population are shown on urban/rural residence, marital status, literacy, economic characteristics and disability. A special section on the living arrangements of elderly persons as developed from population censuses complements this picture. Throughout the Yearbook data are shown by urban/rural residence." (EXCERPT)
Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Three. Population education in literacy and continuing education.
Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. , 115 p. (Population Education Programme Service)Workshops were conducted in 1989 and 1991 in Indonesia and Pakistan to discuss the integration of population education into primary school curricula and into continuing education and literacy programs. This document provides a summary of prototype materials for integration of population messages in nonformal education. On-site visits were conducted in the rural villages of Sinar Bakti and Sari Harapan in the eastern district of Lembang, and 24 semi-literate persons were interviewed on demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, practices in family planning, problems and solutions, and aspirations. Workshop participants drafted materials with the help of resource persons, and 1 flip chart, 1 chart, and 2 booklets were field-tested. The core messages were that mother and child health care promotes family welfare; there is a right age for marriage; children can be spaced; women should be allowed to obtain a higher education; educated mothers add to family quality of life; women's groups can be effective; and rapid population growth leads to water shortages. Each of these messages for semi-literates is further differentiated by format, specific objectives, materials, messages and submessages. For example, a flip chart with 11 pictures is developed for stimulating discussion on the benefits of improving women's educational status. The instructions for facilitators are to direct learners to study the pictures and read the text and then direct questions about the messages in the pictures. Learners are expected to explain the pictures and text and draw conclusions. The learning materials from Pakistan were developed based on a needs assessment approach. Interviewers visited houses and asked for knowledge and attitudes on messages about small family size and social welfare, the right marriage age, responsible parenthood, population and development, reorientation of population-related beliefs and values, and enhancement of the status of women. The results of the inquiries are given. An example of these issues is represented in teaching materials for reorienting beliefs on the right marriage age. The target would be out-of-school youths and adults. The focus would be on how 1) early marriage affects the health of the mother and child, and 2) young mothers are not mentally prepared for the consequences of frequent pregnancies. A puppet show is provided as well as a guide for facilitators of discussion.
Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume One. Guidelines for curriculum and materials development.
Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. , 67 p. (Population Education Programme Service)As part of an effort to integrate population education messages into the Asia-Pacific Program of Education for All (APPEAL), two workshops were held, one in Indonesia in 1989 and one in Islamabad, Pakistan, in 1991. The objectives were 1) to exchange experiences on integrating population education messages for in-school and out-of-school programs; 2) to develop alternative program designs for integrating population education into primary education and literacy programs; and 3) to develop prototype materials. This article provides a summary of discussions occurring during the two workshops. Volume II and III reflect prototypes of outstanding instructional materials developed during the workshops; volume II is directed to primary education and volume III to literacy and continuing education programs. The issues discussed in this document include population core messages developed in Indonesia and Pakistan, and guidelines and instruments in curriculum and materials development. The focus of curriculum development is on special considerations in integrating population education, learning requirements, problems in use of population education materials, guidelines for determining curriculum needs and developing and using materials, and steps in developing integrated curricula and preparing and using materials. Linkages are possible with different sectors. Sample evaluation instruments are provided as well as reference materials lists (papers, brochures, reports). Some experiences with teaching-learning materials development are indicated. Basic considerations in preparing for development of population education are the national policy, concepts of population education, societal needs, program targets, core messages, and limitations. The recommendation is for the establishment of a single coordinating group to implement primary and continuing education and literacy programs for population education. Some of the problems noted were conceptualization of population education, nonavailability of experts, nonidentification of core messages, shortages of trained teachers and materials, overloading of curriculum, decision making, and employment of unsuitable or unqualified personnel in population education.
PROMOTION & EDUCATION.. 1999; 6(2):10-2.This article presents advocacy strategies for helping to increase the literacy rate among Muslim girls in South Central Asia. Data from UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) indicated that in 1995 only 15% of female in Afghanistan were literate; in Bangladesh, the percentage was a little over 26%. In India, the female literacy rate stood at about 38%; in Pakistan it stood at just over 24%. In fact, only half of the total number of school-aged children in South Asia were enrolled in school, and 42% dropped out by grade 5. The reasons for this high rate of dropout were poor quality education, poverty, child labor, (in the case of girls) taking care of younger siblings, household chores, and early marriage. In response to this problem, the UNFPA developed an advocacy strategy that focused on three important approaches--1) building coalitions with like-minded NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and institutions, 2) effective use of the mass media dependent on developing excellent relationships with the media s key representatives, and 3) working directly with communities. The six major steps in the communication strategy may be applied to an advocacy strategy according to a method similar to that employed in IEC strategy planning. These steps are as follows: 1) data gathering and analysis, 2) the segmenting of the target audience, 3) the formulation of specific objectives, 4) the formulation of an action plan or management plan, 5) the creation of methods and channels of communication, and 6) monitoring and evaluation. Although the advocacy campaign issues have been addressed, the implementation of these strategies still depends on government support and participation of NGOs.
Plan of operations, 1991 - 1995: "Woman and Child Care" programme of cooperation, government of Oman and UNICEF.
[Unpublished] 1990 Dec. , 89 p.This two-part report describes 1) the plan of operations during 1991-95 for a joint project between the Government of Oman and UNICEF to improve maternal and child health and welfare and 2) the program components. The plan of operations includes the rationale, background, main goals, program strategy and linkages, monitoring and evaluation, cooperation with UN agencies and others, administration, and assignment of responsibilities of the project. The program components include social mobilization, water/environmental sanitation, health and nutrition, education and adult literacy, community and child development, and program supports. The 6 major goals pertain to the 6 major components. For example, the goal of social mobilization efforts is to achieve the empowerment of over 90% of the population by the year 2000 to enable them to practice good health habits and positive social behavior. By 1995, primary school attendance should be 100%; secondary and preparatory school attendance should be 90%; and 75% of the eligible population should be functionally literate and without gender disparity. Health goals include control of diarrheal diseases and malaria, expanded immunization, and prevention of disability and accidents. Safe drinking water and sanitation should be expanded to a large proportion of the urban and rural population. Strategies are regional, employ alternative sources of income, and focus on young children and women of all ages.
Delhi, India, Oxford University Press, 1997. xvi, 193,  p.This report presents recent trends in demographic, social, and economic indicators for India and for its states. The report sought to make a comprehensive assessment of the major states in terms of the Human Development Index, the Gender Related Health Index, and the Reproductive Health Index. This study reveals that the gains from development are unevenly distributed. Almost one-third of the population continues to live with few resources and income to meet basic needs. The level of poverty has not declined significantly and has increased in some states. Human development indicators remain low in part due to insufficient spending on social sectors by states. Other developing countries with similar per capita income spend more than 1% of gross domestic product on family welfare and more than 8% on essential health and education services. Inputs/outputs and short and long term impacts vary by residence, among states, and by gender. The ICPD measures of progress focus on a number of social and health indicators. Five states lag behind these indicators: Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Much progress has been made in the states of Punjab, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, and to some extent Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Haryana. The five states with low human development measures account for 43% of total population and contribute to over 50% of the natural population increase. These states are at the lowest levels of development and are likely to take 50 years to attain the development and fertility status of Kerala.
[Resolution No.] 47/95. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1992].
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-SEVENTH SESSION. 1993; 1:176-8.This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution calls for an improved pace in the implementation of the Strategies because the cost of failing to implement the Strategies would include slowed economic and social development, inadequate use of human resources, and reduced progress. Thus, governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations are urged to implement the recommendations, and member states are asked to give priority to programs which improve women's employment, health, and education (especially literacy). The central role of the Commission on the Status of Women is reaffirmed, and the Commission is asked to pay particular attention to women in the least developed countries. Other issues which require urgent attention include promoting the total integration of women in the development process and redressing socioeconomic inequities at the national and international levels. The Secretary-General is asked to perform specific tasks including the continued updating of the "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development."
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. , 96 p.A worldwide educational campaign has been launched in response to the discouraging results of the 1990 appraisal of implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000. As part of that campaign, this book uses statistical data compiled by the UN to describe the obstacles faced by women attempting to achieve equality in political participation and decision making; advancement in education, employment, and health; and participation in the peace process. The objective of this book is to raise the awareness of these issues among governments, nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the private sector, and individuals. Each of the first six chapters discusses one area of women's lives and ends by delivering a series of challenges to be met by the year 2000. Chapter 1 discusses discrimination against women (its roots; the lag between theoretical and practical advances; sex stereotypes; and discrimination in marriage, the family, and society) as well as its legal remedies. Chapter 2 defines women's health as a vital prerequisite to equality and covers such topics as the global health boom; women as primary health care providers; clean water, sanitation, and nutrition; the effects of economic crisis; maternal mortality; fertility and family planning; increasing malnutrition; AIDS; genital mutilation; and son preference. Chapter 3 looks at women's education as a key to empowerment and focuses on illiteracy, the effects of the economic crisis on education, and the special problems of rural women. Chapter 4 considers aspects related to acknowledgment of women's work such as the multiple roles of women, accounting for women's economic activity, households headed by women, women in agriculture, women in the informal sector, women suffering from exploitation in the formal sector, and the effects on women of economic adjustment programs. Chapter 5 examines women in political life, and Chapter 6 defines the role women play as victims of domestic and other violence and as advocates of peace. The concluding chapter provides a practical guide to obtaining further information from the UN.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. xi, 112 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 298; Africa Technical Department Series)A review of the literature indicates that the access of girls and women to education in sub-Saharan Africa is being hindered by socioeconomic and cultural factors, aspects of the school environment, and political and institutional forces. Among these factors are direct and opportunity costs, parental attitudes toward investments in female schooling, social class, child labor demands, an emphasis on the woman's roles as wife and mother, scheduling of initiation ceremonies, Islamic beliefs, teachers' negative attitudes about girls' learning potential, early pregnancy, sexual harassment, and the overall low status of women. Strategies with the potential to increase female participation in education include: more flexible and efficient use of teacher and school resources to increase supply; increases in the number of female teachers, especially in science and mathematics; improvements in teachers' gender-stereotyped attitudes; widened curriculum choices for girls; introduction of simple technological innovations that reduce the demand for child labor; increased coverage through initiatives with nongovernmental organizations, religious groups, and families; and review of fiscal and administrative policies that restrict female educational and employment opportunities. Given the complexities of issues related to female education, multiple simultaneous interventions on both the supply and demand sides may be required. Also needed are stronger linkages between research findings, policy formulation, and program design and implementation.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:204, 594-5.The UN General Assembly Resolution No. 44/127, December 15, 1989, on International Literacy Year (ILY) begin with the General Assembly recalling past resolutions relevant to literacy, i.e., the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, where the right of every individual to education is recognized, and the realization that eradication of illiteracy is one of the paramount objectives of the International Development Strategy for the Third UN Development Decade and should become one of the objectives of the strategy for the 4th UN development decade, and that illiteracy seriously hinders the process of economic and social development and the cultural and spiritual advancement of society, and that functional literacy and adequate education represents an indispensable element for development and for the harnessing of science, technology, and human resources for economic and social progress. The resolution commends the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which has assumed the role of lead organization for ILY, for its work to ensure adequate preparation for ILY, and commends those Governments establishing national committees and programs aimed at meeting the objectives of the ILY. The Assembly expresses its appreciation to the specialized agencies and other organizations of the UN for their contribution to the preparation for ILY; welcomes the convening of the World Conference on Education for All, to be held in Thailand in March 1990 under the joint sponsorship of the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the UN Development Program, the UN Children's Fund, and the World Bank. It invites relevant organizations to take appropriate measures towards achieving the objectives of ILY, requests wide publicity to the activities and measures to be undertaken during ILY, and requests a report on the implementation of the program for ILY.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1991. 60 p.The 1991 UNICEF annual report contains an introduction written by the Executive Director, James P. Grant. In it he outlines the goals of the World Summit for Children which include: initiatives to save an additional 50 million children, reduce childhood malnutrition by 50%, reduce female illiteracy by 50% , and eradicate polio and guinea worm from the planet. The report discusses the programs conducted during 1991 including: the World Summit for Children, child survival and development, basic education, water supply and sanitation, sustainable development, urban basic services, childhood disability, women in development, social mobilization, emergency relief, monitoring and evaluation, inter-agency cooperation. The report also outlines UNICEF's external relations, resources, and provides several profiles including Africa's AIDS orphans. Income for 1990 totaled US$821 million for 1990, and estimated at US$858 million for 1991. Expenditures for 1989 were US$633 million, US$738 million for 1990, and estimated at US$847 million for 1991.
IN TOUCH 1987 Dec; 11(85):21-4.This paper discusses Bangladesh's overwhelming social, economic, and health obstacles to improving child health, and stands behind the UNICEF GOBI-FFF strategy as a low-cost alternative for rapid implementation. GOBI-FFF is an acronym for growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breastfeeding, immunization, food supplements for infants, female education, and family spacing. Specifically, the article endorses growth monitoring with the National Nutrition Council child health and nutrition card. The growth chart should be seen as an approach for the promotion of good health, prevention of malnutrition and infectious disease, and treatment of minor illnesses. The card has been designed for use among children 0-5 years of age at the primary health care level. The card includes messages and information on child health and nutrition. The actual process of growth monitoring requires a growth chart, growth chart manual, and a weighing scale. The paper describes growth measurement as the most scientifically effective measure of a child's nutrition and overall health. It is a simple and inexpensive manner of monitoring child health and nutritional status in the community.
In: Issues in contemporary international health, edited by Thomas A. Lambo and Stacey B. Day. New York, New York, Plenum Medical Book Company, 1990. 113-33.The causes of mortality and disability in the world are reviewed, and the 4 most important mechanisms for promoting maternal and child health are proposed: female literacy, family planning, community-based efforts and global strategies for international cooperation. The health needs of women, children and adolescents, who make up the majority and the most vulnerable segment of the population, must be met. Malnutrition is the single most important cause of health problems through adult life, and affects 20 million children in Africa alone. Statistics are cited for infant mortality, vaccine-preventable diseases, diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections, infant mortality and maternal mortality. The key determinant of infant survival is female literacy. Existing scientific cooperation is the closet thing we have to a global international community. An example of applied scientific solutions to health care is the risk approach in maternal health care. 2 strategies of scientific cooperation have emerged: the international center model in a country or region to address a specific problem, and the task force model, as used effectively by WHO, UNICEF, and the Task Force for Child Survival. Research topics on health in developing countries are listed that could be tackled by universities and scientific networks, e.g. scientific research is lacking on how to make household hygiene effective in poor countries. A concerted global research effort and surveillance effort is needed for AIDS.