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  1. 1

    Lipodystrophy and metabolic complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Parakh A; Dubey AP; Kumar A; Maheshwari A

    Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2009 Oct; 76(10):1017-21.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the metabolic drug toxicities of first-line, World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended generic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, to estimate the prevalence of body fat redistribution and to identify associated risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. During 3 month period, 52 HIV infected children (25 on HAART; 27 not on HAART) were assessed. Their sociodemographic, clinical, and immunological data was recorded. Children were examined or the signs of fat redistribution (peripheral lipoatrophy and central lipohypertrophy). Liver function tests, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, serum amylase, serum lactate, blood pH and bicarbonate levels were done in all patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were on stavudine and three on zidovudine based HAART. None of the patients ever received any protease inhibitor. There were no cases of clinical or immunological failure. Children on HAART had significantly lower weight for age and body mass index but the mean height for age was similar between study groups. Only two cases of peripheral lipoatrophy were observed. Hypercholesterolemia was observed in four children on HAART but none without therapy. Hypertriglyceridemia was observed in three children on HAART and seven without therapy. Four cases of asymptomatic mild hyperlactatemia were observed. No case of any hyperglycemia or liver impairment was observed. CONCLUSION: Metabolic abnormalities and lipodystrophy are emerging complications of HAART in Indian children and needs very close follow up. Future studies with larger sample size and longitudinal model are recommended.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Macronutrients as sources of food energy.

    Prentice AM

    Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Oct; 8(7A):932-939.

    This background paper considers the extent to which the development of new recommendations for dietary energy requirements needs to account for the macronutrient (fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol) profiles of different diets. The issues are discussed from the dual perspectives of avoiding under-nutrition and obesity. It is shown that, in practice, human metabolic processes can adapt to a wide range of fuel supply by altering fuel selection. It is concluded that, at the metabolic level, only diets with the most extreme macronutrient composition would have any consequences by exceeding the natural ability to modify fuel selection. However, diets of different macronutrient composition and energy density can have profound implications for innate appetite regulation and hence overall energy consumption. (author's)
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