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New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, 2012. 118 p. (Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.228)The 2012 Revision is the twenty-third round of official United Nations population estimates and projections, prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. The 2012 Revision builds on the previous revision by incorporating the results of the 2010 round of national population censuses as well as findings from recent specialized demographic surveys that have been carried out around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2012 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. The results of the 2012 Revision incorporate the findings of the most recent national population censuses, including from the 2010 round of censuses, and of numerous specialized population surveys carried out around the world. The 2012 Revision provides the demographic data and indicators to assess trends at the global, regional and national levels and to calculate many other key indicators commonly used by the United Nations system.
BMJ Open. 2015; 5(10):e007004.OBJECTIVES: To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. SETTING: Global project. PARTICIPANTS: Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. RESULTS: The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries' level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (p<0.05). Rule of law remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Globalization and women's and girls' health in 192 UN-member countries convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
International Journal of Social Economics. 2016 Jul 11; 43(7):692-721.Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the ratification of the United Nations' (UN's) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and women's and girls' health outcomes using a unique longitudinal data set of 192 UN-member countries that encompasses the years from 1980 to 2011. Design/methodology/approach - The authors focus on the impact of CEDAW ratification, number of reports submitted after ratification, years passed since ratification, and the dynamic impact of CEDAW ratification by utilizing ordinary least squares (OLS) and panel fixed effects methods. The study investigates the following women's and girls' health outcomes: Total fertility rate, adolescent fertility rate, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, neonatal mortality rate, female life expectancy at birth (FLEB), and female to male life expectancy at birth. Findings - The OLS and panel country and year fixed effects models provide evidence that the impact of CEDAW ratification on women's and girls' health outcomes varies by global regions. While the authors find no significant gains in health outcomes in European and North-American countries, the countries in the Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Africa, Caribbean and Central America, South America, Middle-East, Eastern Asia, and Oceania regions experienced the biggest gains from CEDAW ratification, exhibiting reductions in total fertility, adolescent fertility, infant mortality, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality while also showing improvements in FLEB. The results provide evidence that both early commitment to CEDAW as measured by the total number of years of engagement after the UN's 1980 ratification and the timely submission of mandatory CEDAW reports have positive impacts on women' and girls' health outcomes. Several sensitivity tests confirm the robustness of main findings. Originality/value - This study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the multifaceted relationships between CEDAW ratification and female health outcomes. The study significantly expands on the methods of earlier research and presents novel methods and findings on the relationship between CEDAW ratification and women's health outcomes. The findings suggest that the impact of CEDAW ratification significantly depends on the country's region. Furthermore, stronger engagement with CEDAW (as indicated by the total number of years following country ratification) and the submission of the required CEDAW reports (as outlined in the Convention's guidelines) have positive impacts on women's and girls' health outcomes.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2016.  p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2016 focuses on the proposed health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets. It represents an initial effort to bring together available data on SDG health and health-related indicators. In the current absence of official goal-level indicators, summary measures of health such as (healthy) life expectancy are used to provide a general assessment of the situation.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.World Health Statistics 2015 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. WHO presents World Health Statistics 2015 as an integral part of its ongoing efforts to provide enhanced access to comparable high-quality statistics on core measures of population health and national health systems.
Population and Development Review. 2013 Sep; 39(3):551-555.The latest biennial series of population estimates and projections issued by the United Nations Population Division -- known as the 2012 Revision -- was released in June 2013. The series is the most widely used statistical source for international demographic comparisons. The new estimates are advertised as taking into account the results of the 2010 round of censuses, resulting in some adjustments to the 2010 Revision’s baseline figures on total populations and vital rates and, in turn, changes in projection assumptions and projection outputs. Selected results of this exercise, taken from the publication World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables (and from the press release announcing it), are reprinted by permission. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.World Health Statistics 2011 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This volume's indicators, taken together, provide a comprehensive summary of the current status of nine aspects of national health and health systems: life expectancy and mortality; cause-specific mortality and morbidity; selected infectious diseases; health service coverage; risk factors; health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines; health expenditure; health inequities; and demographic and socioeconomic statistics.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2009 Sep 1; 52(1):106-13.BACKGROUND: Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for treatment of HIV in resource-limited settings call for 2 antiretroviral regimens. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of increasing the number of antiretroviral regimens is unknown. METHODS: Using a simulation model, we compared the survival and costs of current WHO regimens with two 3-regimen strategies: an initial regimen of 3 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors followed by the WHO regimens and the WHO regimens followed by a regimen with a second-generation boosted protease inhibitor (2bPI). We evaluated monitoring with CD4 counts only and with both CD4 counts and viral load. We used cost and effectiveness data from Cape Town and tested all assumptions in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Over the lifetime of the cohort, 25.6% of individuals failed both WHO regimens by virologic criteria. However, when patients were monitored using CD4 counts alone, only 6.5% were prescribed additional highly active antiretroviral therapy due to missed and delayed detection of failure. The life expectancy gain for individuals who took a 2bPI was 6.7-8.9 months, depending on the monitoring strategy. When CD4 alone was available, adding a regimen with a 2bPI was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2581 per year of life gained, and when viral load was available, the ratio was $6519 per year of life gained. Strategies with triple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor regimens in initial therapy were dominated. Results were sensitive to the price of 2bPIs. CONCLUSIONS: About 1 in 4 individuals who start highly active antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa will fail currently recommended regimens. At current prices, adding a regimen with a 2bPI is cost effective for South Africa and other middle-income countries by WHO standards.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2008 Sep 15; 337:958-960.In sub-Saharan Africa, 3% of the world's health workforce cares for 10% of the world's population bearing 24% of the global disease burden. Developing countries need an extra 4.3 million health workers, and urgent action is required to scale up education and training. Last month the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health emphasised the importance of building and strengthening the health workforce if the goal of achieving health equity within a generation is to be realised. International cooperation will be essential to strengthen health systems and to manage the migration of health workers from developing to developed countries. But these measures will take time. What can African and Asian health systems do to recruit and retain health workers now? How can health workers be persuaded to practise in rural areas? Guidelines, commissioned by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, aim to help countries make the best use of incentives to attract and retain health professionals. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/270)The AIDS epidemic remains one of the greatest challenges confronting the international community. In countries with a large number of people living with HIV, all population and development indicators are affected by the epidemic. Governments often cite HIV/AIDS as their most significant demographic concern. For more than two decades, the rapidly expanding HIV/AIDS epidemic has triggered a wide array of responses at the national, regional and global levels. The goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in the 2000 Millennium Declaration and through the adoption of the 2001 Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS reflect widely-held concerns about the impact of the epidemic on development and human well-being. More recently, at the 2006 High Level Meeting on AIDS, Member States adopted a Political Declaration focusing on how to attain universal access to comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention programs, treatment, care and support by 2010. (excerpt)
Maturitas. 2001 Feb 28; 38(1):5-15.The global population reached two billion people in 1927 and six billion in 1999. If the medium variant projection of the United Nations were to materialize, the Earth's population would reach nine billion in 2054. However, such a brave new world will be inhabited by a brave old humankind; in 2050, 16.4% of the world population and 27.6% of the European population are projected to be 65 years and above, and in 14 countries, including nine European ones, more than 10% of the total population will be 80 years or older. The United Nations also project a world-wide decline in the number of children and in total fertility, and by 2050, there will be more elderly than children in several parts of the world, particularly in Europe. It seems likely that many of our classical institutions, for instance healthcare -- unless reformed -- will cater increasingly for the needs of a population structure that no longer exists. The World Health Organization projects that by the year 2020, global health trends will be dominated by the ageing of the world population, the HIV:AIDS epidemic, tobacco-related mortality and declining child mortality. Furthermore, the leading causes of disease burden will be heart disease, depression and traffic accidents. How can we meet the giant challenges of the 21st century? In the view of the author, the most rational remedy must be a quantum leap in research in general and in medical research in particular. (author's)
Poverty - World Bank's 'World Development Report - 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..The World Bank has dedicated its thirteenth annual global development study to an exhaustive examination of the "poorest of the world's poor", analysing programmes which have successfully eliminated poverty. The 260-page analysis--World Development Report 1990--first measures poverty, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and then draws lessons from the experience of countries which have successfully reduced poverty. The burden of poverty is spreading unevenly among countries, the Bank states. Nearly half of the world's poor live in South Asia, a region that accounts for roughly 30 per cent of the world's population. Sub-Saharan Africa has a smaller, but "still highly disproportionate, share of global poverty", the Report says. Within countries and regions, there are also disparate concentrations of poverty. The weight of poverty falls most heavily on women and children. (excerpt)
Health Transition Review. 1997 Apr; 7(1):61-71.The World Development Report 1993 announced that global life expectancy was then 65. Experience in the developed world suggests that the World Health Organization’s dictum, ‘health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, is simply not attainable for the foreseeable future. As physical health has improved, mental problems have become more prominent and a sense of well-being has declined. Furthermore, as the population ages and medical technology improves, the cost of health care grows almost exponentially. Since the population of the developed world is continuing to age and aging is spreading rapidly throughout the developing world, knowledge is the principal way of dealing with this seemingly intractable problem: we must know, quantitatively, the age-specific causes of ill health, and we must know which means of prevention and treatment are effective. Finally, we must apply that knowledge rationally. (author's)
Population Studies. 1958 Nov; 12(2):164-169.To meet the need for estimates of mortality in countries with inadequate statistics, the Population Branch of the United Nations Department of Social Affairs has proposed a scheme for estimating model life tables. For each of 40 different levels of infant mortality, the U.N scheme provides estimates of mortality rates at all other ages, as well as of the corresponding expectation of life at birth. For other levels of infant mortality interpolation between the two adjacent given estimates may be used. These model life tables were obtained in terms of mortality rates for both sexes combined, and additional methods are suggested for obtaining the rates for each sex separately. The present paper deals only with the scheme for both sexes combined. The U.N. scheme was based on an analysis of 158 life tables for various countries and periods (some of the tables were incomplete so our final analyses include only 150 observations). The data used were: infant mortality rates--(-1)q(-0), mortality rates for ages one to four--(-4)q(-1) and quinquennial mortality rates—(-5)q(-x)(5)--for all other ages up to 85, as well as the expectation of life at birth--(0)e(-0). (excerpt)
Health Policy. 2005 Sep; 73(3):339-351.This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health, in particular cardiovascular diseases and external causes of death. In addition, countries, with support from the international community, must improve the quality of vital registration data to enable more accurate estimation of the disease burden. (author's)
Population 2005. 2004 Dec; 6(4):7-8.In a report issued in November, the Population Division of the UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs has estimated that the world’s population may stabilize at about 9 billion by the year 2300. The document, World Population 2300, provides extensive data showing low, medium and high projections for each country of the world. All projected scenarios share the same assumptions about steady decline of mortality after 2050, increase in life expectancy, and zero international migration after 2050. The scenarios are based on assumptions for 2050, which were set out in the UN’s World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, Volumes I and II. The following major findings are excerpted from the report. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2003 Jun; 5(2):1-4.The 2002 Revision of the official United Nations population estimates and projections, which has been issued recently, projects a world population of 8.9 billion in 2050 rather than 9.3 billion projected in the 2000 revision. About half of the 0.4 billion difference in these projected populations results from an increase in the number of projected deaths, the majority stemming from higher projected levels of HIV prevalence. The other half of the difference reflects a reduction in the projected number of births, primarily as a result of lower expected future fertility levels. Despite the lower fertility levels projected and the increased mortality risks to which some populations will be subject, the population of the world is expected to increase by 2.6 billion during the next 47 years, from 6.3 billion today to 8.9 billion in 2050. However, the realization of these projections is contingent on ensuring that couples have access to family planning and that efforts to arrest the current spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are successful in reducing its growth momentum. The potential for considerable population increase remains high. (excerpt)
AIDS Bulletin. 2004 Dec; 13(4):11-12.In November UNAIDS released updated figures on the state of the epidemic. The report reveals the relentless upward march of the epidemic with an estimated 39.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 4.9 million new infections during 2004 and 3.1 million deaths from AIDS in 2004. The bad news continues for our region. “Sub-Saharan Africa has just over 10% of the world’s population, but is home to more than 60% of all people living with HIV – some 25.4 million [23.4 million – 28.4 million]. In 2004, an estimated 3.1 million [2.7 million – 3.8 million] people in the region became newly infected, while 2.3 million [2.1 million – 2.6 million] died of AIDS. Among young people aged 15 – 24 years, an estimated 6.9% [6.3 – 8.3% of women and 2.2% [2.0 – 2.7%] of men were living with HIV at the end of 2004.” (excerpt)
26th Annual Conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Population on Population, Health and Environment, 9-11 February 2004. Organized by Annamalai University, Annamalainagar. [Abstracts of papers presented].
Annamalainagar, India, Annamalai University, Centre for Population Studies, 2004. 98 p.One of the objectives of Madhya Pradesh population policy 2000 is to reduce the risk of death due to complications of pregnancy and delivery from an estimated 498 maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births in 1997 to 220 by the year 2011. The policy calls for making emergency obstetric care services available in all development block level health care institutions by 2011. In order to prevent maternal deaths it is however necessary that EmOc services are made available right up to the village level so as to make possible the management of obstetric emergencies as and when they arise. Making these services available only up to the block level may not contribute significantly in reducing maternal mortality. The extent and nature of emergency obstetric care services may vary in different tires of the health care delivery system. The conceptual framework that has been developed here follows an evidence based approach for making available emergency obstetric care services at different levels of health care delivery system. The conceptual plan focuses on what can be done at the level of community and at different tires of public health care delivery system in managing, treating and referring patients with emergency complications. Starting of immediate treatment and prompt transfer of the patients to a health care facility where specialized services are available can save many young lives. Obstetric first aid to stabilize the patient before referral is life saving delay may mean death. It is recommended that the plan should constitute the basis for developing and expanding emergency obstetric care services in Madhya Pradesh in the efforts towards reducing the maternal mortality rate. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Mar.  p.The newly released 2002 revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects shows that, by the year 2050, 75 percent of all countries in the less developed regions of the world will experience below-replacement fertility — that is, a fertility rate lower than 2.1 children per woman. This estimate is the UN's medium variant and highlights a lower world population in 2050 than the UN's 2000 Revision did: 8.9 billion instead of 9.3 billion. About half of the 400 million difference in these projected populations results from an increase in the number of projected deaths, the majority stemming from higher projected levels of HIV prevalence. The other half of the difference reflects a reduction in the projected number of births, primarily as a result of lower expected future fertility levels. World population, now at 6.3 billion, is growing at a rate of 1.2 percent annually, meaning an additional 77 million people each year. This is considerably slower than the peak annual growth rate of over 2 percent, reached in the early 1970s. (excerpt)
World population in 2300. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300, United Nations Headquarters, New York.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004 Mar 24 x, 36 p. (ESA/P/WP.187/Rev.1)In order to address the technical and substantive challenges posed by the preparation of long-range projections at the national level, the Population Division convened two meetings of experts. The first meeting, the Technical Working Group on Long-Range Population Projections, was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 30 June 2003 and provided consultation on the proposed assumptions and methodology for the projection exercise. The second meeting, the Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300, was held at United Nations Headquarters on 9 December 2003. Its purpose was to examine the results of the long-range projections and to discuss lessons learned and policy implications. The Expert Group consisted of 30 invited experts participating in their personal capacity. Also attending were staff members of the Population Division and the Statistics Division, both part of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. This document presents the report of the meeting of the Expert Group on World Population in 2300, along with the background paper prepared by the Population Division and the questions addressed by the meeting. The Population Division drew valuable guidance from the deliberations at the meeting as well as from comments submitted in writing by the experts. All of these inputs will be taken into consideration in preparing the final report on the long-range projections, as well as in future projection exercises. The Population Division extends its appreciation to all the experts for their suggestions and contributions to the preparation of the long-range projections. (excerpt)
Health for the Millions. 2004 Feb-Mar; 29(6):54.Girls' education is one of the most crucial issues facing the international development community. The report is a call to action on behalf of 121 million children who are out of school around the world today, 65 million of whom are girls. Despite thousands of successful projects in countries across the globe, gender parity in education - in access to school, successful achievement and completion - is as elusive as ever and girls continue to systematically lose out on the benefits that an education affords. The report findings clearly show, how universal education has been considered a luxury rather than a human right, economic development programmes have focused on economic performance rather than human welfare, and limited policies have looked only to the education sector when identifying solutions. Girls' education is so inextricably linked with the other facets of human development that to make it a priority is also to make progress on a range of other fronts: health and status of women, early childhood care, nutrition, water and sanitation, reduction of child labour and other forms of exploitation, and Peaceful resolution of conflicts. (excerpt)
Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Aug. 3 p.Still reaping the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia has in recent years struggled with numerous difficulties ranging from social unrest, political instability, and ethnic and sectarian violence to a decline in access to health care and other public services. More recent events, including the bomb blast in Jakarta — which followed other deadly bombings in 2002 — have increased fears that the sprawling archipelago may be facing new political and population pressures. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. vii, 32 p. (World Bank Policy Research Report)This conclusion presents an important challenge to us in the development community. What types of policies and strategies promote gender equality and foster more effective development? This report examines extensive evidence on the effects of institutional reforms, economic policies, and active policy measures to promote greater equality between women and men. The evidence sends a second important message: policymakers have a number of policy instruments to promote gender equality and development effectiveness. (excerpt)