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[WHO updates medical eligibility criteria for contraceptives] OMS reactualizeaza criteriile medicale de eligibilitate pentru utilizarea contraceptivelor.
Targu-Mures, Romania, Institutul Est European de Sanatate a Reproducerii, 2006. 15 p. (Actualitati in planificarea familiala No. 1)The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued new family planning guidance, including the following: Most women with HIV infection generally can use IUDs. Women generally can take hormonal contraceptives while on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for HIV infection, although there are interactions between contraceptive hormones and certain ARV drugs. Women with clinical depression usually can take hormonal contraceptives. More than 35 experts met at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2003 and developed this and other new guidance. The new guidance updates the 2000 Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) for Contraceptive Use. (excerpt)
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health Project [INFO], 2004 Aug. 8 p. (INFO Reports No. 1; USAID Grant No. GPH-A-00-02-00003-00)The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued new family planning guidance, including the following: Most women with HIV infection generally can use IUDs. Women generally can take hormonal contraceptives while on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for HIV infection, although there are interactions between contraceptive hormones and certain ARV drugs. Women with clinical depression usually can take hormonal contraceptives. More than 35 experts met at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2003 and developed this and other new guidance. The new guidance updates the 2000 Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) for Contraceptive Use. (excerpt)
Leiden, Netherlands, Rijks Universiteit, Leiden, Wetenschapswinkel, 1995 Feb. 67 p.After initiating public debate in the Netherlands about how and to what extent UN Population Fund (UNFPA) policies respect women's autonomy and reproductive rights, the cooperating research groups investigated the UNFPA policy dealing with incentives and disincentives to accept family planning (FP) and goals for FP providers. Interviews were held in 1994 in Bangladesh with 125 women and men in rural Bogra and in suburban Dhaka to determine 1) the extent to which incentives influence contraceptive choice, 2) decision-making roles within families, 3) the extent to which health workers are rewarded and the amount of influence they exert over contraceptive choices, and 4) the extent to which service provider disincentives affect attempts to reach service goals. This report of that study provides background information on the research and on the development of population control policies in Bangladesh, the organization of the FP program, and contraceptive methods available. Part 2 traces the incentive program from its probable introduction in India in 1956 through the Bangladeshi Financial Incentive System starting in 1976. Arguments in favor of the use of incentives are summarized. The third part of the report provides an analysis of the data gained from focus group discussions and from interviews with potential users, with women who had undergone a tubectomy more than two years earlier, with vasectomized men, with IUD users, with longterm IUD users, with Norplant users, with women who rely on menstrual regulation, and with service providers. The final section compares findings from Bogra and Dhaka and provides a discussion of the findings in light of other reports in the literature in terms of such issues as quality of care, voluntary and informed choice, and women's status. Recommendations from the study include protecting the human and reproductive rights of women by prohibiting the use of incentives in favor of improving health care, contraceptive availability, and women's status.
Outlook. 1985 Mar; 3(1):7-8.The World Health Organization (WHO) consultation convened in October 1984 the Special Programme of Reasarch in Human Rreproduction concluded that Norplant provides effective and reversible longterm contraception and should be available in family planning programs for women desiring longterm contraception. The Norplant implant systgem consists of 6 silastic capsules each containing 36 mg of levonorgestrel which is slowly released into the bloodstream. The implants can be left in place for up to 5 years or removed at any time. The consultation report considered the research data adequate to conclude that the method is safe for human use. Acceptability apperas to be high: 1st year continuation rates of 80-90% are roughly equivalent to those of the IUD, and continuation at the end of 5 years is about 50%. Bleeding irregularities are a common side effect, but heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding is infrequent. The constant slow release of levonorgestrel minimizes the common side effects of contraceptive steroids, and the system exposes the body to less than 100 mg of levonorgestrel over 5 years. Since the method is new and not in widespread use, there have been few studies on longterm use or rare side effects, prompting the WHO consulatation to recommend "appropriate surveillance activities to evaluate its long-term safety." Additional research was also recommended on the effect of the implants on lactation and on the growth and development of children exposed to levonorgestrel in breastmilk. The consultation report pointed out the need for clinic facilities for insertion and removal and for adequate training of providers before introduction of the method into a program. An international pharmaceutical company based in Finland has been licensed by the Population Council, the developer of Norplant, to manufacture and distribute the implants. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare has also approved the Norplant system for contraceptive use in Sweden.