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Central European Journal of Public Health. 2004 Mar; 12(1):52.Health workers' experience shows that HAART can be delivered and is effective in poor settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) welcomes the research published in the issue of The Lancet highlighting the substantial increased survival for people with HIV/AIDS who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The new report focuses on findings in rich countries, but the experience of WHO and public health workers in clinics around the world shows that antiretroviral therapy (ART) can be delivered effectively and with equally dramatic results in poor countries. This research and the new evidence that antiretroviral therapy is extremely effective gives added backing to WHO in its push to deliver antiretrovirals to three million people in developing countries by the end of 2005 (the "3 by 5" target). WHO expects survival gains to be as good or even better in resource-poor settings over a similar period of time. "Treatment with antiretrovirals works for everyone - rich and poor. Now the poor urgently need access to these drug," said Dr Charlie Gilks, head of WHO's "3 by 5" team. "We are determined too simplify treatments and to ensure that affordable, quality drugs reach those in need as quickly as possible." (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
RENKOU YANJIU. 1985 Mar 29; (2):31-5.A comparative study and detailed analysis of various standard model life tables are presented. After examining the development of various methods by which demographic factors and weighting techniques are applied, the reasons for the existence of vast discrepancies among the model life tables for various world regions are discussed. It is argued that the 1955 UN model life tables and others developed in Europe and in the United States theoretically apply to Western populations, thus the so-called Chilean, Far East, Southern Asia, and Latin American models, all of which are extensions of Western models, are not totally applicable. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the UN's model population tables 90, 95, and 100 (published in 1955) closely approximate China's 1982 census statistics for life expectancy.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 7 p.The Second African Conference on Population and Development, held early in 1984, marked a decisive stage in African thinking about population. During the 12 years between the 1972 and 1984 conferences, African nations learned in detail about their demographic situation and confronted the ever-increasing costs of development and their lack of physical and administrative infrastructure. In the midst of these and other concerns came the drought, which for over a decade in some parts of the continent has reduced rainfall, dried up rivers, lakes, and wells, and forced millions into flight. It is in this context that population became an African issue. African countries on the whole are not densely populated nor do they yet have very large concentrations in cities. Yet, population emerges as more than a matter of numbers, and there are features which give governments cause for concern. First, the population of most African countries, and of the continent as a whole, is growing rapidly and could double itself in under 25 years. Second, mortality among mothers and children is very high. Third, life expectancy generally is lower in African than in other developing countries. Fourth, urbanization is sufficiently rapid to put more than half of Africa in cities by 2020 and 1/3 of the urban population in giant cities of over 4 million people. The 1984 conference recognized these and other uncomfortable facts and their implications for the future, and agreed that attention to population was an essential part of African development strategy. Strategy is considered in terms of the 4 issues mentioned. First, high rates of growth are not in themselves a problem, but they mean a very high proportion of dependent children in the population. About 45% of Africa's population is under age 14 and will remain at this level until the early years of the 21st century. Meeting the needs of so many children and young adults taxes the ability of every African nation, regardless of how rapidly its economy may expand. Understanding this, a growing number of African leaders call for slower growth in order to achieve a balance in the future between population and the resources available for development. Reducing mortality requires innovation. Among the new approaches to health care are the use of traditional medicine and practitioners in conjunction with modern science and the mobilization of community groups for preventive care and self-help. Health care and better nutrition also are keys to improvement in life expectancy and call for ingenuity and innovation on the part of African governments and communities. Part of the solution to the impending urban crisis must be attention to the viability of the rural sector. The role of the UN Fund for Population Activities in addressing the identified issues is reviewed.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1985 May 25; 290(6481):1587.The recent World Health Organization (WHO) report on oral contraceptives (OCs) and cervical cancer suggests a relative risk of contracting cervical cancer among users and former users of OCs ranging from 1.1-1.7 depending on which variables are controlled. For women who had used OCs for 2-5 years the relative risk was 1.46 (not controlling for other risk factors). OC use carries both risks and benefits and these need to be kept in perspective. It is important to remember that the risk attributable to OC use is small even for those diseases which have been associated with OC use. Life expectancy was calculated using mortality rates that have been modified to incorporate all known risks and benefits of OC use. To illustrate the effect of an increased risk of cervical cancer life expectancy was calculated with no increased risk of cervical cancer (relative risk = 1) and again with a relative risk of 1.46 (the relative risk reported by WHO for women with 2-5 years of OC use). Relative risks for other diseases were kept constant. The risks for women taking OCs were calculated when the women were 20-24 and for women taking pills when they were 30-34. The expectation of life for American women never taking OCs is 77.34 years. A table shows the expectation of life for OC users. Young women using OCs benefit very slightly in terms of life expectancy, and older women taking pills lose very slightly. That part of the difference which is contributed by cervical cancer is also extremely small. The maximum change in life expectancy that could be attributed to an increased risk of cervical cancer is 0.03 years or 11 days. By contrast, a women who smokes 1-10 cigarettes a day during her 30s reduces her life expectancy by about 4 years.
[Unpublished] . Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 3 p.Liberia's population characteristics and dynamics are briefly decribed, the current status of population data collection is noted, and the government's population policies and programs are summarized. National censuses were conducted in 1962 and 1974 with assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and a 3rd census is planned for February 1984. National population growth surveys were conducted in 1969 and 1972, and demographic growth surveys were undertaken in 1978 and 1979. An administrative structure for registering births and deaths was recently created, however, most births occurring outside of hospitals and clinics will not be covered. In 1973, a demographic unit was established at the University of Liberia to develop the manpower needed to upgrade population data collection procedures. According to data collected in the 1974 censuses and subsequent surveys, the birthrate is 48.6, the death rate is 17.3, and the gross reproductive rate is 3.2. the total fertility rate is 6.7, and the infant mortality rate is 110.4. Life expectancy at birth is 49.1 for males and 52.5 for females. there are 97.3 males/100 females. The proprotion of the male population under 15 years of age is 47.9%, and the respective proportion for females is 46.9%. The total population is 1.8 million. Although Liberia does not have a population policy, the government recently established a National Population Committee to formulate a national policy and to coordinate population acitivities. 3.5% of Liberia's women of childbearing age currently use family planning services provided either by the International Planned Parenthood Federation or by the government with the assistance of UNFPA and the US Agency for International Development.