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[Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2006 Feb.  p. (Health Systems Knowledge Network (KN) Discussion Document No. 1)During July and August 2005 the Health Systems Knowledge Network Hub produced a wide-ranging literature review for discussion at a meeting in India between Hubs and the rest of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (Doherty, Gilson and EQUINET 2005). The review was based on literature sourced from within the consortium managing the hub as well as from institutions networked with the consortium members. Some key references from existing materials were also followed up. Given the wide scope of work on health systems, it was not feasible to conduct a general electronic search. Nor was it possible to access substantial quantities of grey literature, given the difficulties associated with identifying and locating copies of this type of literature. Because of time constraints, the review focused on reviews of international experience and articles documenting new lines of investigation. Articles that were, at the time, in press were specifically sought out to ensure as up-todate an evidence base as possible. The review began by presenting data showing that health services tend to be used proportionately more by richer than poorer social groups. It analysed the social factors affecting access to, and uptake of, health services and showed how these interact with inequitable features of the health care system. Overall, the review argued that the interaction between household health-seeking behaviour and experience of the health system generates differential health and economic consequences across social groups. The long-term costs of seeking care often impoverish poorer households, reinforcing preexisting social stratification. The review then examined in some detail the features of the health care system that contribute to inequity (such as certain approaches to priority-setting, resource allocation, financing, organisation, human resources, and management and regulation). (Excerpt)
Scaling up HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care: a report on WHO support to countries in implementing the “3 by 5” Initiative, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 143 p.In September 2003, LEE Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, and Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, declared the lack of access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries to be a global health emergency. Shortly after this declaration, WHO and its partners launched a global initiative to scale up antiretroviral therapy with the objective of having 3 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy - representing half the total number of those globally in need - by the end of 2005 ("3 by 5"). Although the actual target of putting 3 million people on antiretroviral therapy was not reached by the end of 2005, countries have made significant progress in the past two years in expanding treatment coverage, strengthening prevention and building the capacity of health systems to deliver long-term, chronic care. Overall, in the two-year period, antiretroviral therapy coverage in low- and middle-income countries increased from 7% of those in need at the end of 2003 (400 000 people) to 20% of those in need at the end of 2005 (1.3 million people). Eighteen countries managed to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage to half or more of the people who needed it, consistent with the "3 by 5" target. (excerpt)
United Nations Reform: Improving Peace Operations by Advancing the Role of Women. Sponsored by the Stanley Foundation in cooperation with Women in International Security. November 14, 2006 - New York, November 16, 2006 - Washington, DC.
Muscatine, Iowa, Stanley Foundation, 2006. 24 p.In November 2006, over 75 experts gathered in New York and Washington to discuss "United Nations Reform: Improving Peace Operations by Advancing the Role of Women." Convened by the Stanley Foundation and Women in International Security (WIIS), practitioners and policymakers from various United Nations agencies, national governments and militaries, academia, and civil society groups identified barriers to women's advancement and generated concrete ways to improve the recruitment and selection of women for peace operations as heads of mission, military personnel, civilian police, and international and national staff. On numerous occasions, the United Nations has committed itself to achieving 50/50 gender balance throughout the organization. Indeed, understanding of the added value of women's knowledge and experiences is growing within the UN system and beyond, yet implementation of existing mandates is sporadic. Furthermore, the pockets of activity and momentum are rarely connected, as UN agencies, member states, and civil society are frequently operating in parallel structures and forums. The New York and Washington sessions brought diverse actors together to bridge the knowledge gap, maximize efforts, and jointly strategize on next steps to enhance women's numbers and role in peace operations. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, . 29 p.AIDS is affecting women and girls in increasing numbers: globally, women comprise almost 50% of women living with HIV. Nearly 25 years into the epidemic, gender inequality and the low status of women remain two of the principal drivers of HIV. Yet current AIDS responses do not, on the whole, tackle the social, cultural and economic factors that put women at risk of HIV, and that unduly burden them with the epidemic's consequences. Women and girls have less access to education and HIV information, tend not to enjoy equality in marriage and sexual relations, and remain the primary caretakers of family and community members suffering from AIDS-related illnesses. To be more effective, AIDS responses must address the factors that continue to put women at risk. The world's governments have repeatedly declared their commitment to improve the status of women and acknowledged the linkage with HIV. In some areas, progress has been made. By and large, though, efforts have been small-scale, half-hearted and haphazard. Major opportunities to stem the global AIDS epidemic have been missed. It is time the world's leaders lived up to their promises. That's why the UNAIDS-led Global Coalition on Women and AIDS is calling for a massive scaling up of AIDS responses for women and girls. (excerpt)
Expanding the field of inquiry: a cross-country study of higher education institutions' responses to HIV and AIDS.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 Mar. 73 p. (ED-2006/WS/25; CLD 27584)This report compares, analyses, and summarises findings from twelve case studies commissioned by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in higher education institutions in Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lesotho, Suriname, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It aims to deepen the understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on tertiary institutions and the institutional response to the epidemic in different social and cultural contexts, at varying stages of the epidemic, and in different regions of the world. The overall objective is to identify relevant and appropriate actions that higher education institutions worldwide can take to prevent the further spread of HIV, to manage the impact of HIV and AIDS on the higher education sector, and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on individuals, campuses, and communities. Specific focus includes: Institutional HIV and AIDS policies and plans; Leadership on HIV and AIDS; Education related to HIV and AIDS (including pre- and in-service training, formal and nonformal education); HIV and AIDS research; Partnerships and networks; HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and Community outreach. (excerpt)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:101-108.The present article focuses on the subject of leadership in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment in HIV/AIDS, discussing the advancements, challenges, and limitations to the action of major social forces acting to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. The national policy on AIDS was characterized by the illustrative Brazilian experience in summoning multiple government, civil society, and private sector initiatives to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The synergy between different partners needs to be enhanced and efforts in the field of scientific and technological development must be articulated in order to minimize the effects of technological dependence. These actions are aimed at the sustainable production of drugs and other products, with the perspective of improving the fulfillment of the constitutional precept of health as a universal right. (author's)
SCN News. 2006; (33):39-42.The 1996 Manila meeting and subsequent meeting in Cape Town in 1999 stimulated capacity development activities within UNU and IUNS. IN 2000, several African regional capacity task forces held initial planning meetings to develop an overall action plan. The plan was accepted during the SCN meeting in April 2001 in Nairobi. Most of the activities outlined in the action plan were implemented in 2002. This paper reviews progress of these activities, directly or indirectly through the work of Food & Nutrition Programme of the United Nations University (UNU-FNP). (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Jul 15; 368(9531):177-179.The unexpected and shocking death of Lee Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, on May 22, the first morning of the Fifty-ninth World Health Assembly, placed WHO in the unprecedented situation of being without its leader at a peak decision-making season. Where does Dr Lee's death leave WHO? Remarkably, WHO has not been incapacitated, although his loss continues to be deeply felt. The organisation has maintained momentum in part because of his management style, which strategically devolved responsibility, and also because of a change in the way in which WHO is finding solutions to global health problems. In the past, there was sometimes a conceptual divide between the adoption of a resolution by the governing bodies as a generally good principle and the more painful realisation of it in practice in countries. The watershed came with tobacco control. The process to arrive at the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was slow and difficult, fraught with legal complexities, and detailed negotiations over texts. But the end product is a powerful instrument that is already proving useful to Member States in enforcing a rigorous, internationally supported approach to improving health. (excerpt)