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Towards a grand convergence for child survival and health: A strategic review of options for the future building on lessons learnt from IMNCI.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016 Nov. 78 p.This strategic review provides direction to the global child health community on how to better assist countries to deliver the best possible strategies to help each child survive and thrive. Over the past quarter century, child mortality has more than halved, dropping from 91 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Yet in 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children still died before reaching their fifth birthday, most from conditions that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The review took as its departure point the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), developed by WHO and UNICEF in 1995 as a premier strategy to promote health and provide preventive and curative services for children under five in countries with greater than 40 deaths per 1000 live births. It includes contributions from over 90 countries and hundreds of experts in child health and related areas, with 32 specifically commissioned pieces of analysis. The final product represents a collaboration of child health experts worldwide, working together to examine past lessons and propose an agenda to stimulate momentum for improving care for children.
Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive. 2011-2015.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2137E)This Global Plan provides the foundation for country-led movement towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive. The Global Plan was developed through a consultative process by a high level Global Task Team convened by UNAIDS. It brought together 25 countries and 30 civil society, private sector, networks of people living with HIV and international organizations to chart a roadmap to achieving this goal by 2015.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2009. 8 p.This report shows how countries with low prevalence of male circumcision but high prevalence of HIV have made progress to scale up male circumcision services.
New England Journal of Medicine. 2007 Feb 15; 356(7):653-656.When Dr. Margaret Chan of China was elected director--general of the World Health Organization (WHO) this past November, some observers suspected that the Chinese government had backed her candidacy in hopes of planting a lackey at the United Nations to do its bidding. In contrast, many global health experts have spoken positively about Chan's China connection. "They're hoping she has some sort of a 'red phone' to Beijing that would help WHO and global health," said Kelley Lee, a senior lecturer in global health policy at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. But privately, some remain concerned about China's intentions, especially given the country's notorious failure to alert the world to the first cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. Chan is aware of all these suspicions and has a ready answer. "I have a strong record of being a straight talker," she says. "I speak the truth to power, because there's only one objective for me: whatever decision I make is based on public health evidence." She underscores her point with stories from her 25 years in public health in Hong Kong, the last 9 as director of health. "When vegetables were coming across from mainland China, when food items or any herbal medicine was coming across that did not meet my standards, I stopped them," she said. "That caused economic loss to China, clearly, but my primary consideration is public health." Similarly, Chan prohibited a U.S. company from shipping ice cream with high bacterial counts. The company said its test results were normal, and Chan replied, "Yes, normal is what I would expect for your tests. But my tests are abnormal." Ultimately, other countries found the same problem with the product. "Science speaks for itself," said Chan. (excerpt)
SCN News. 2006; (33):39-42.The 1996 Manila meeting and subsequent meeting in Cape Town in 1999 stimulated capacity development activities within UNU and IUNS. IN 2000, several African regional capacity task forces held initial planning meetings to develop an overall action plan. The plan was accepted during the SCN meeting in April 2001 in Nairobi. Most of the activities outlined in the action plan were implemented in 2002. This paper reviews progress of these activities, directly or indirectly through the work of Food & Nutrition Programme of the United Nations University (UNU-FNP). (excerpt)
London, England, Overseas Development Institute, 2005 Apr.  p. (Working Paper No. 244)The Research and Policy in Development (RAPID) programme at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) has been working since 1999 to promote development policy-making processes that are evidence-based and focused on the needs of the poor. One of the key dimensions of the RAPID programme at ODI is 'knowledge and learning systems in development agencies'. This study synthesises existing research on knowledge and learning in the development sector, and draws out eight key questions for examining related strategies and systems in development agencies. Together, these questions make up a comprehensive Knowledge Strategies Framework, which bears close resemblance to the framework used by the ODI to assess complex processes of change within the development and humanitarian sector. The dimensions of this new Knowledge Strategies Framework are mapped out as Organisational knowledge, Organisational links, Organisational contexts, and External factors. The study then presents the analysis of data collected on current knowledge and learning practices in 13 selected case study organisations1. This data was gathered via desk based reviews, interviews, consultations with agency staff and focus groups. The Knowledge Strategies Framework is used to analyse and synthesise these findings, to formulate the recommendations of the study, and to suggest key next steps. (excerpt)
The political economy of reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20-22,1986. World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3-5,1986.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 49 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 8)Toward the end of 1986, EDI organized two workshops on The Political Economy of Reform in Africa. Given the Bank's traditional stance, which emphasizes technical and economic factors in development, EDI's interest in this topic may surprise some readers. However, the Bank's recent experience of policy-based lending has underscored the need to broaden our understanding of political and public administration issues. Furthermore, recent EDI senior policy seminars in Africa have reinforced the view that political economy issues are amongst the main obstacles to the initiation and implementation of policy reform. For these reasons, EDI decided to design a series of three Senior Policy Seminars on Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 1986-87. To prepare for these seminars with ministers and senior civil servants from all over sub-Saharan Africa, we decided to convene consultations with scholars in the field of political economy. These discussions would equip us to organize a forum for the exploration of policy processes, including political economy issues, with African practitioners. (excerpt)
Progress towards implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Report of the Secretary-General.
New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2003 Jul 25. 21 p. (A/58/184)The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 100 of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (General Assembly resolution S-26/2, annex), adopted by the Assembly at its special session on the human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) on 27 June 2001. The year 2003 is especially significant since it is the year in which the first of the time-bound targets set out in the Declaration of Commitment fall due. The majority targets in 2003 pertain to the establishment of an enabling policy environment, which set the stage for the programme and impact targets of 2005 and 2010. The report is based primarily on responses provided by 100 Member States on 18 global and national indicators developed by the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS to measure progress towards implementation of the Declaration. The regional breakdown of States that responded is as follows: sub-Saharan Africa — 29; Asia and the Pacific — 15; Latin America and the Caribbean — 21; Eastern Europe and Central Asia — 13; North Africa and the Middle East — 8; high-income countries — 14. Virtually all heavily affected countries provided information relating to policy issues addressed by the indicators. The activities cited in the report are intended to be illustrative and not a comprehensive listing of all activities that have been undertaken in order to implement the Declaration. (excerpt)