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Engaging young people for health and sustainable development. Strategic opportunities for the World Health Organization and partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 72 p. (WHO/CDS/TB/2018.22)This report builds on WHO’s long-standing work on young people’s health and rights, including the Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030), the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) guidance, and contribution to the new UN Youth Strategy. It was developed as part of the roadmap towards the development of a WHO strategy for engaging young people and young professionals. The world today has the largest generation of young people in history with 1.8 billion between the ages of 10 and 24 years. Many of them already are driving transformative change, and many more are poised to do so, but lack the opportunity and means. This cohort represents a powerhouse of human potential that could transform health and sustainable development. A priority is to ensure that no young person is left behind and all can realize their right to health equitably and without discrimination or hindrance. This force for change represents an unparalleled opportunity for the WHO and partners to transform the way they engage with young people, including to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report describes strategic opportunities to meaningfully engage young people in transforming health and sustainable development. This will mean providing opportunities for young people’s leadership and for their engagement with national, regional and global programmes.
Youth leap into gender equality: UN Women’s youth and gender equality strategy: empowered young women and young men as partners in achieving gender equality.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Apr. 28 p.UN Women’s Youth and Gender Equality Strategy is a pivotal response for increased youth engagement to strengthen gender equality and womens empowerment. Young people across the world have asserted their presence and raised their voices to demand a greater role in shaping their societies’ future that have challenged the status quo. The global youth population—an unprecedented 1.8 billion—only adds to the urgency of the youth agenda. The youth upsurge represents a tremendous strategic opportunity to tap into the talents and skills of young people to advance global and national development goals. UN Women’s Youth and Gender Equality Strategy is grounded in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform for Action, the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the World Programme of Action for Youth, a host of resolutions and outcomes of the United Nations General Assembly on youth, gender equality and the empowerment of women, and the recently agreed, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” document. Moreover, the global review and commemoration of Beijing+20 and the adoption of a dedicated, comprehensive, and transformative Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 on achieving Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment for all women and girls coincides with the 20th anniversary of the World Programme of Action for Youth. This is a critical moment for action. UN Women aims to reinvigorate its work on youth issues against this larger global and institutional backdrop, especially the adoption of SDG 5. UN Women recognizes that both young men and women today possess extraordinary potential to positively transform their communities. UN Women has put in place a multi-faceted strategy that takes into consideration not only traditional forms of advocacy and engagement, but also new technologies and approaches in engaging young men and young women. Key elements of UN Women’s strategy include reinvigorated partnerships with a wider spectrum of entities, resource mobilization, and active monitoring and evaluation.
Towards a grand convergence for child survival and health: A strategic review of options for the future building on lessons learnt from IMNCI.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016 Nov. 78 p.This strategic review provides direction to the global child health community on how to better assist countries to deliver the best possible strategies to help each child survive and thrive. Over the past quarter century, child mortality has more than halved, dropping from 91 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Yet in 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children still died before reaching their fifth birthday, most from conditions that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The review took as its departure point the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), developed by WHO and UNICEF in 1995 as a premier strategy to promote health and provide preventive and curative services for children under five in countries with greater than 40 deaths per 1000 live births. It includes contributions from over 90 countries and hundreds of experts in child health and related areas, with 32 specifically commissioned pieces of analysis. The final product represents a collaboration of child health experts worldwide, working together to examine past lessons and propose an agenda to stimulate momentum for improving care for children.
Focus UNFPA: Four recommendations for action. Report of the CGD Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2011.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was established in 1969 to generate resources for family planning and provide global leadership on population issues. Since then, the diverse needs of countries and evolving global views of population have placed complex issues on UNFPA’s doorstep. The Center for Global Development Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition recommends that UNFPA narrow its focus to again become one of the most important and visible vehicles for promoting sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights globally and in developing countries. Supported by experts within and outside the United Nations (UN), UNFPA should also help countries take account of population issues in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The time is right to reinvigorate UNFPA. Seventeen years after the groundbreaking International Conference on Population and Development, UNFPA needs to make itself the lead agency for population, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights in the UN system, as well as be more visible externally. Recommendation 1: Establish and pursue a limited set of priorities closely related to UNFPA’s unique mission. Recommendation 2: Refine goals and transparently measure progress. Recommendation 3: Align human resources with a focused and renewed mission. Recommendation 4: Rebrand UNFPA as the lead agency for sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights.
[Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2011 Mar.  p. (CGD Brief)With a new executive director appointed in November 2010, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is in a position to re-assert its role and lead the world’s effort toward landmark achievements in improving women’s health and well-being. The Fund’s performance will literally be a matter of life or death for millions of women and children. The numbers speak for themselves: an estimated 215 million women lack access to modern contraceptives, and there are approximately 350,000 maternal deaths each year. As the lead agency for the United Nations’ work on population and reproductive health, UNFPA can reduce this terrible and unnecessary toll of lost lives. The Center for Global Development Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition urges the Fund to sharpen its focus in pursuing the Programme of Action developed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Specifically, the Working Group recommends the following steps to Executive Director Babatunde Osotimehin: Establish and pursue a limited set of priorities closely related to UNFPA’s unique mission; Improve UNFPA’s performance measurement and reporting; Align UNFPA’s human resources with its renewed agenda; Define and communicate UNFPA’s role in population, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights.
Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive. 2011-2015.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2137E)This Global Plan provides the foundation for country-led movement towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive. The Global Plan was developed through a consultative process by a high level Global Task Team convened by UNAIDS. It brought together 25 countries and 30 civil society, private sector, networks of people living with HIV and international organizations to chart a roadmap to achieving this goal by 2015.
Hamilton, Canada, McMaster Health Forum, 2011 Mar.  p.Calls for reform have recently grown louder to change the way that global health efforts are coordinated, financed and prioritized. These calls recognize that global health is not being governed as effectively as possible and that innovative solutions are necessary to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals, global health security, and other priorities of the international community. This edited volume offers evidence-based assessments of thirteen existing proposals for global health governance reform. Each chapter relies on an extensive review of the available research evidence and a broad range of insights to: (a) summarize the key elements of each proposed global health governance reform; (b) identify the needs it seeks to address; (c) examine the extent to which it could strengthen global health governance and ameliorate known weaknesses in its existing architecture; (d) analyze the proposal's political attractiveness; (e) raise implementation considerations such as costs, risks, possible harms, feasibility and equity; and (f) offer recommendations on whether the proposal should be further explored for possible implementation. (Excerpts)
Everybody's business. Strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007.  p.The primary aim of this Framework for Action is to clarify and strengthen WHO’s role in health systems in a changing world. There is continuity in the values that underpin it from its constitution, the Alma Ata Declaration of Health For All, and the principles of Primary Health Care. Consultations over the last year have emphasized the importance of WHO’s institutional role in relationship to health systems. The General Programme of Work (2006-2015) and Medium-term Strategic Plan 2008-2013 (MTSP) focus on what needs to be done. While reaffirming the technical agenda, this Framework concentrates more on how the WHO secretariat can provide more effective support to Member States and partners in this domain. (Excerpt)
World Policy Journal. 2010 Summer; 27(2):41-46.Leaders should forget all about quick fixes, because quick fixes will never solve the most pressing global health challenges. World leaders cannot assume, "Oh, we are providing nets, so the nets are going to solve the entire malaria problem." Quite the opposite: just because the nets are being provided does not mean that they are being used. And therefore, we must listen to whoever would fund the strategies, policies and strategic plans developed within those countries to maximize impact. In Uganda, for instance, we have a forum where we have both the donors and the Ugandan government sitting together agreeing on the priorities. So let us address the priorities of the country together rather than having outside organizations say, "This is what we think is correct, we will dictate it to you, and we expect it to work." I've said many times that this does not work. Whatever health crisis is being addressed must be approached with the understanding that we are living in a global community. We must understand that whatever is happening in one country can easily spread to and affect almost anywhere in a very short period of time. We need to bear in mind that we are not only protecting the people we are providing services to, but we are also protecting ourselves. (Excerpt)
[Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Jun 9; 369(9577):1915-1916.When the late Lee Jong-wook, former Director-General of WHO, took office in July, 2003, he made his priorities clear: HIV/AIDS was topping the agenda at the global health agency. In his first few months he launched his signature issue-the 3 by 5 campaign-which aimed to provide antiretroviral drugs to 3 million people in developing countries by 2005. His successor, Margaret Chan, who took office on Jan 4 this year, has taken a decidedly different approach to putting her stamp on the organisation. She has spent her first 100 days in office consulting with her colleagues to refine and sharpen her vision for WHO. Presenting her six priorities-health development, health security, strengthening health systems, using evidence to define strategies and measure results, managing partnerships to get the best results in countries, and improving the performance of WHO-to the 60th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May, Chan confirmed that these were now WHO's agenda. Rather than major new initiatives at this stage, Chan has opted for a "simple but elegant framework for looking at how WHO can help countries to develop better health outcomes", explains Ian Smith, one of Chan's advisers. (excerpt)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:101-108.The present article focuses on the subject of leadership in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment in HIV/AIDS, discussing the advancements, challenges, and limitations to the action of major social forces acting to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. The national policy on AIDS was characterized by the illustrative Brazilian experience in summoning multiple government, civil society, and private sector initiatives to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The synergy between different partners needs to be enhanced and efforts in the field of scientific and technological development must be articulated in order to minimize the effects of technological dependence. These actions are aimed at the sustainable production of drugs and other products, with the perspective of improving the fulfillment of the constitutional precept of health as a universal right. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Bureau for Development Policy [BDP], Special Initiative on HIV / AIDS, 2001. 27 p.The devastation caused by HIV/AIDS is unique because it is depriving families, communities and entire nations of their young and most productive people. The epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development achievements, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the ability of governments to maintain essential services, reducing labour productivity and supply, and putting a brake on economic growth. These worsening conditions in turn make people and households even more at risk of, or vulnerable to, the epidemic, and sabotages global and national efforts to improve access to treatment and care. This cycle must be broken to ensure a sustainable solution to the HIV/AIDS crisis. The response to HIV/AIDS so far has focused, rightly so, on the challenge of containing the epidemic and preventing new infections through advocacy, information and education campaigns, behaviour change communication, condom distribution, programmes targeting groups that are particularly vulnerable to infection, and other key interventions. The other part of the response is focusing on treatment and care for people living with HIV and AIDS — efforts that are expected to intensify as new treatments become more accessible and affordable. Both prevention and treatment are top priorities in not only saving lives and reducing human suffering, but also in limiting the future impact on human development and poverty reduction efforts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. 2 p.The AIDS epidemic is a global catastrophe, responsible for over 20 million deaths worldwide, tens of millions of children left orphaned, and 40 million people living with HIV. Similarly, five hundred million people a year suffer from reproductive health morbidity or lack of access to modern contraceptives, and there are over half a million pregnancy related deaths each year. In the face of these unprecedented crises, UNFPA and UNAIDS, in collaboration with Family Care International, convened a high-level global consultation at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York on 7 June 2004. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2004 Oct; 18(3): p..For young people across Africa, education is vital, argues Mohammed A. Latif Mbengue, a 28-year-old graduate student at Senegal's Cheikh Anta Diop University. The fact that African countries have not yet succeeded in working together to solve the continent's problems has hampered access to education. "The lack of coordination makes it very difficult for me if I want to study at another African university." He believes that the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), which emphasizes regional integration, can help. He also thinks that the global campaign to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is essential. Endorsed by world leaders in 2000, the MDGs campaign has set targets that include reducing by half the number of people living in poverty by the year 2015, to ensure that all children complete primary education and to combat HIV/AIDS. When African leaders drew up NEPAD the following year, they incorporated the MDGs within their plan. (excerpt)
Keeping the promise: summary of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS, United Nations General Assembly, Special Session on HIV / AIDS, 25-27 June 2001, New York.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Jun. 33 p. (UNAIDS/02.31E; PN-ACP-799)At the meeting, Heads of State and Representatives of Governments issued the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. This Declaration describes in its preamble (paragraphs 1–36), the extent of the epidemic, the effects it has had, and the ways to combat it. The Declaration then states what governments have pledged to do—themselves, with others in international and regional partnerships, and with the support of civil society— to reverse the epidemic. The Declaration is not a legally binding document. However, it is a clear statement by governments concerning that which they have agreed should be done to fight HIV/AIDS and that which they have committed to doing, often with specific deadlines. As such, the Declaration is a powerful tool with which to guide and secure action, commitment, support and resources for all those fighting the epidemic, both within and outside government. This booklet simplifies and summarizes the text of the Declaration in an effort to make it more accessible to all and to encourage everyone to do his or her part to put it into action. Where possible, it pairs relevant paragraphs from the preamble with relevant sections from the body of the Declaration. The bold text in quotes is taken directly from the Declaration. Also included are quotes from some of the statements made by speakers at the meeting, as well as from people affected by HIV/AIDS. It should be stressed that the paragraphs in this booklet are simplified versions of those found in the Declaration. They should not be substituted for the full, original text when formal reference to the Declaration is needed. The original text is attached as an annex for easy reference. (excerpt)
Progress towards implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Report of the Secretary-General.
New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2003 Jul 25. 21 p. (A/58/184)The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 100 of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (General Assembly resolution S-26/2, annex), adopted by the Assembly at its special session on the human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) on 27 June 2001. The year 2003 is especially significant since it is the year in which the first of the time-bound targets set out in the Declaration of Commitment fall due. The majority targets in 2003 pertain to the establishment of an enabling policy environment, which set the stage for the programme and impact targets of 2005 and 2010. The report is based primarily on responses provided by 100 Member States on 18 global and national indicators developed by the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS to measure progress towards implementation of the Declaration. The regional breakdown of States that responded is as follows: sub-Saharan Africa — 29; Asia and the Pacific — 15; Latin America and the Caribbean — 21; Eastern Europe and Central Asia — 13; North Africa and the Middle East — 8; high-income countries — 14. Virtually all heavily affected countries provided information relating to policy issues addressed by the indicators. The activities cited in the report are intended to be illustrative and not a comprehensive listing of all activities that have been undertaken in order to implement the Declaration. (excerpt)
Journal of Health Communication. 2003 Mar-Apr; 8(2):99-100.The new WHO should work to foster benefits to health. Health promotion, disease prevention, health literacy, quality service delivery, supportive policy environments, and other areas that help develop a health-competent society can serve as cornerstones with economic development and sustainable institutions. (excerpt)