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  1. 1
    338994
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization and the Globalization of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease.

    Weisz G; Vignola-Gagne E

    Population and Development Review. 2015 Sep 15; 41(3):507-532.

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries have recently provoked a surge of public interest. This article examines the policy literature-notably the archives and publications of the World Health Organization (WHO), which has dominated this field-to analyze the emergence and consolidation of this new agenda. Starting with programs to control cardiovascular disease in the 1970s, experts from Eastern and Western Europe had by the late 1980s consolidated a program for the prevention of NCD risk factors at the WHO. NCDs remained a relatively minor concern until the collaboration of World Bank health economists with WHO epidemiologists led to the Global Burden of Disease study that provided an “evidentiary breakthrough” for NCD activism by quantifying the extent of the problem. Soon after, WHO itself, facing severe criticism, underwent major reform. NCD advocacy contributed to revitalizing WHO's normative and coordinative functions. By leading a growing advocacy coalition, within which The Lancet played a key role, WHO established itself as a leading institution in this domain. However, ever-widening concern with NCDs has not yet led to major reallocation of funding in favor of NCD programs in the developing world.
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  2. 2
    321121

    UNAIDS practical guidelines for intensifying HIV prevention: Towards universal access.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007. [66] p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)

    These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    283992

    HIV / AIDS: implications for poverty reduction.

    Loewenson R

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Bureau for Development Policy [BDP], Special Initiative on HIV / AIDS, 2001. 27 p.

    The devastation caused by HIV/AIDS is unique because it is depriving families, communities and entire nations of their young and most productive people. The epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development achievements, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the ability of governments to maintain essential services, reducing labour productivity and supply, and putting a brake on economic growth. These worsening conditions in turn make people and households even more at risk of, or vulnerable to, the epidemic, and sabotages global and national efforts to improve access to treatment and care. This cycle must be broken to ensure a sustainable solution to the HIV/AIDS crisis. The response to HIV/AIDS so far has focused, rightly so, on the challenge of containing the epidemic and preventing new infections through advocacy, information and education campaigns, behaviour change communication, condom distribution, programmes targeting groups that are particularly vulnerable to infection, and other key interventions. The other part of the response is focusing on treatment and care for people living with HIV and AIDS — efforts that are expected to intensify as new treatments become more accessible and affordable. Both prevention and treatment are top priorities in not only saving lives and reducing human suffering, but also in limiting the future impact on human development and poverty reduction efforts. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    191977

    Progress towards implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2003 Jul 25. 21 p. (A/58/184)

    The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 100 of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (General Assembly resolution S-26/2, annex), adopted by the Assembly at its special session on the human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) on 27 June 2001. The year 2003 is especially significant since it is the year in which the first of the time-bound targets set out in the Declaration of Commitment fall due. The majority targets in 2003 pertain to the establishment of an enabling policy environment, which set the stage for the programme and impact targets of 2005 and 2010. The report is based primarily on responses provided by 100 Member States on 18 global and national indicators developed by the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS to measure progress towards implementation of the Declaration. The regional breakdown of States that responded is as follows: sub-Saharan Africa — 29; Asia and the Pacific — 15; Latin America and the Caribbean — 21; Eastern Europe and Central Asia — 13; North Africa and the Middle East — 8; high-income countries — 14. Virtually all heavily affected countries provided information relating to policy issues addressed by the indicators. The activities cited in the report are intended to be illustrative and not a comprehensive listing of all activities that have been undertaken in order to implement the Declaration. (excerpt)
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