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Engaging young people for health and sustainable development. Strategic opportunities for the World Health Organization and partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 72 p. (WHO/CDS/TB/2018.22)This report builds on WHO’s long-standing work on young people’s health and rights, including the Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030), the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) guidance, and contribution to the new UN Youth Strategy. It was developed as part of the roadmap towards the development of a WHO strategy for engaging young people and young professionals. The world today has the largest generation of young people in history with 1.8 billion between the ages of 10 and 24 years. Many of them already are driving transformative change, and many more are poised to do so, but lack the opportunity and means. This cohort represents a powerhouse of human potential that could transform health and sustainable development. A priority is to ensure that no young person is left behind and all can realize their right to health equitably and without discrimination or hindrance. This force for change represents an unparalleled opportunity for the WHO and partners to transform the way they engage with young people, including to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report describes strategic opportunities to meaningfully engage young people in transforming health and sustainable development. This will mean providing opportunities for young people’s leadership and for their engagement with national, regional and global programmes.
Winners of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health-Global Health: Science and Practice Annual Student Manuscript Contest [editorial]
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):4-5.The 2 inaugural winners of the CUGH–GHSP Annual Student Manuscript Contest describe (1) the American Mock World Health Organization model for engaging students in global health policy and diplomacy, and (2) a successful Indo-U.S. twinning model of global health academic partnership led by students.
Youth leap into gender equality: UN Women’s youth and gender equality strategy: empowered young women and young men as partners in achieving gender equality.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Apr. 28 p.UN Women’s Youth and Gender Equality Strategy is a pivotal response for increased youth engagement to strengthen gender equality and womens empowerment. Young people across the world have asserted their presence and raised their voices to demand a greater role in shaping their societies’ future that have challenged the status quo. The global youth population—an unprecedented 1.8 billion—only adds to the urgency of the youth agenda. The youth upsurge represents a tremendous strategic opportunity to tap into the talents and skills of young people to advance global and national development goals. UN Women’s Youth and Gender Equality Strategy is grounded in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform for Action, the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the World Programme of Action for Youth, a host of resolutions and outcomes of the United Nations General Assembly on youth, gender equality and the empowerment of women, and the recently agreed, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” document. Moreover, the global review and commemoration of Beijing+20 and the adoption of a dedicated, comprehensive, and transformative Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 on achieving Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment for all women and girls coincides with the 20th anniversary of the World Programme of Action for Youth. This is a critical moment for action. UN Women aims to reinvigorate its work on youth issues against this larger global and institutional backdrop, especially the adoption of SDG 5. UN Women recognizes that both young men and women today possess extraordinary potential to positively transform their communities. UN Women has put in place a multi-faceted strategy that takes into consideration not only traditional forms of advocacy and engagement, but also new technologies and approaches in engaging young men and young women. Key elements of UN Women’s strategy include reinvigorated partnerships with a wider spectrum of entities, resource mobilization, and active monitoring and evaluation.
Towards a grand convergence for child survival and health: A strategic review of options for the future building on lessons learnt from IMNCI.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016 Nov. 78 p.This strategic review provides direction to the global child health community on how to better assist countries to deliver the best possible strategies to help each child survive and thrive. Over the past quarter century, child mortality has more than halved, dropping from 91 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Yet in 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children still died before reaching their fifth birthday, most from conditions that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The review took as its departure point the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), developed by WHO and UNICEF in 1995 as a premier strategy to promote health and provide preventive and curative services for children under five in countries with greater than 40 deaths per 1000 live births. It includes contributions from over 90 countries and hundreds of experts in child health and related areas, with 32 specifically commissioned pieces of analysis. The final product represents a collaboration of child health experts worldwide, working together to examine past lessons and propose an agenda to stimulate momentum for improving care for children.
Improving health, social welfare, and human development through women's empowerment in developing countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA.
International Journal of MCH and AIDS. 2016; 5(2):87-91.The United Nations Foundation’s Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13 and welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, and engage in an official lobby day in the nation’s capital. Topics ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit.
Population and Development Review. 2015 Sep 15; 41(3):507-532.Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries have recently provoked a surge of public interest. This article examines the policy literature-notably the archives and publications of the World Health Organization (WHO), which has dominated this field-to analyze the emergence and consolidation of this new agenda. Starting with programs to control cardiovascular disease in the 1970s, experts from Eastern and Western Europe had by the late 1980s consolidated a program for the prevention of NCD risk factors at the WHO. NCDs remained a relatively minor concern until the collaboration of World Bank health economists with WHO epidemiologists led to the Global Burden of Disease study that provided an “evidentiary breakthrough” for NCD activism by quantifying the extent of the problem. Soon after, WHO itself, facing severe criticism, underwent major reform. NCD advocacy contributed to revitalizing WHO's normative and coordinative functions. By leading a growing advocacy coalition, within which The Lancet played a key role, WHO established itself as a leading institution in this domain. However, ever-widening concern with NCDs has not yet led to major reallocation of funding in favor of NCD programs in the developing world.
Sport in Society. 2015 Sep 14; 18(8):895-908.In 2006, UNESCO partnered with the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) claiming that women's tennis can help foster gender equality. This partnership was based on the notion that the empowerment of women and girls is integral to sustainable international development; yet, girls and women are positioned as both the barrier and solution to development. This document analysis uses the UNESCO–WTA project in Cameroon to critique the problematic nature of development assumptions and the approach of gender mainstreaming while contextualizing women's empowerment as a loaded term that often ignores social, political, and economic constraints. The implications of this analysis serve to reiterate calls for sport for development and peace initiatives to situate both sport and gender in their local contexts. It is also important to question the lack of accountability and transparency demonstrated by this particular corporate social responsibility partnership.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013.  p.Food security has arisen again on the development agenda. High and volatile food prices took a toll in 2007–08, and in many low-income countries agricultural yields have risen little, if at all, in the last decade. Moreover, food production in these poor countries is especially vulnerable to climate change. Meeting this demand is a global challenge. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is expected to lead the way in meeting this challenge and, with the arrival in 2012 of the first new director-general in 18 years, it has an opening to restructure itself to do so. In this report, the CGD Working Group on Food Security considers how the FAO might be reenergized and restructured for greater impact on the global challenge of boosting agricultural productivity. It points out that the FAO, despite its respected status as the premier global food agency, risks squandering its potential at a time when demand for food is rising fast, supplies are under threat, and hundreds of millions of people already don’t have enough to eat.
Focus UNFPA: Four recommendations for action. Report of the CGD Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2011.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was established in 1969 to generate resources for family planning and provide global leadership on population issues. Since then, the diverse needs of countries and evolving global views of population have placed complex issues on UNFPA’s doorstep. The Center for Global Development Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition recommends that UNFPA narrow its focus to again become one of the most important and visible vehicles for promoting sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights globally and in developing countries. Supported by experts within and outside the United Nations (UN), UNFPA should also help countries take account of population issues in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The time is right to reinvigorate UNFPA. Seventeen years after the groundbreaking International Conference on Population and Development, UNFPA needs to make itself the lead agency for population, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights in the UN system, as well as be more visible externally. Recommendation 1: Establish and pursue a limited set of priorities closely related to UNFPA’s unique mission. Recommendation 2: Refine goals and transparently measure progress. Recommendation 3: Align human resources with a focused and renewed mission. Recommendation 4: Rebrand UNFPA as the lead agency for sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights.
[Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2011 Mar.  p. (CGD Brief)With a new executive director appointed in November 2010, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is in a position to re-assert its role and lead the world’s effort toward landmark achievements in improving women’s health and well-being. The Fund’s performance will literally be a matter of life or death for millions of women and children. The numbers speak for themselves: an estimated 215 million women lack access to modern contraceptives, and there are approximately 350,000 maternal deaths each year. As the lead agency for the United Nations’ work on population and reproductive health, UNFPA can reduce this terrible and unnecessary toll of lost lives. The Center for Global Development Working Group on UNFPA’s Leadership Transition urges the Fund to sharpen its focus in pursuing the Programme of Action developed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Specifically, the Working Group recommends the following steps to Executive Director Babatunde Osotimehin: Establish and pursue a limited set of priorities closely related to UNFPA’s unique mission; Improve UNFPA’s performance measurement and reporting; Align UNFPA’s human resources with its renewed agenda; Define and communicate UNFPA’s role in population, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights.
Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 2011.  p. (Policy and Issue Brief)The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supports family planning and reproductive health programs in developing countries that save women’s lives. UNFPA provides international leadership on population issues and is a key source of financial assistance for these important programs. Maintaining U.S. funding for UNFPA programs is crucial to improving the health of women and their families, addressing demographic trends, and promoting sustainable development.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2011.  p.Five years after its creation, the UN Human Rights Council began shaking off its reluctance to engage on “country situations” by taking concrete steps to respond to several human rights crises across the globe. From July 2010 through June 2011, the Council established commissions of inquiry on Libya and Côte d’Ivoire, appointed an expert to investigate the human rights situation in Iran, and spoke out after years of silence on the human rights situation in Belarus. It responded quickly and helpfully to the Arab Spring in some countries (Libya, Syria, Tunisia), but ignored entirely developments in Bahrain. Keeping the Momentum highlights the main achievements of the Council in the past year, while noting the serious human rights situations that the Council failed to address. By taking a close look at the performance of 27 states that have played an influential role at the Council, the report shows how a small number of states have moved the Council from being a passive spectator to engaging actively in a manner that shapes human rights on the ground. And it describes how some states have sought to derail that progress. The report examines ways to consolidate and build on that progress to the benefit of all those facing human rights abuse. Human Rights Watch challenges states to live up to the Council’s clear mandate: to promote and protect the human rights of people throughout the world.
Lancet. 2011 Jul 16; 378(9787):226.This letter to the editor finds fault with an editorial that portrayed a new leadership role for UNAIDS in global health, with AIDS at the leading edge of a new movement for integrating health responses to disease. The author perceives the editorial as a self-serving way to reposition UNAIDS given that international funding is shifting from HIV to health systems development.
Lancet. 2010 Oct 30; 376(9751):1439-40.This commentary discusses how the pledges to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria from countries, the private sector, and innovative funding sources have fallen short of the demand estimates, despite the pledged sum being the largest amount ever mobilized for global health. The US $11.7 billion pledge for the 2011-2013 time range is an increase of more than 20% over 2007-2010 and will go toward maintaining programs at their current scale and support further significant expansion of health services in many countries. It explains that the shortfall to meet the $13 billion will result in challenging decisions about which new programs to support and a slower rate of scale-up for new programs.
Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive. 2011-2015.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2137E)This Global Plan provides the foundation for country-led movement towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive. The Global Plan was developed through a consultative process by a high level Global Task Team convened by UNAIDS. It brought together 25 countries and 30 civil society, private sector, networks of people living with HIV and international organizations to chart a roadmap to achieving this goal by 2015.
Hamilton, Canada, McMaster Health Forum, 2011 Mar.  p.Calls for reform have recently grown louder to change the way that global health efforts are coordinated, financed and prioritized. These calls recognize that global health is not being governed as effectively as possible and that innovative solutions are necessary to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals, global health security, and other priorities of the international community. This edited volume offers evidence-based assessments of thirteen existing proposals for global health governance reform. Each chapter relies on an extensive review of the available research evidence and a broad range of insights to: (a) summarize the key elements of each proposed global health governance reform; (b) identify the needs it seeks to address; (c) examine the extent to which it could strengthen global health governance and ameliorate known weaknesses in its existing architecture; (d) analyze the proposal's political attractiveness; (e) raise implementation considerations such as costs, risks, possible harms, feasibility and equity; and (f) offer recommendations on whether the proposal should be further explored for possible implementation. (Excerpts)
[Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2006 Feb.  p. (Health Systems Knowledge Network (KN) Discussion Document No. 1)During July and August 2005 the Health Systems Knowledge Network Hub produced a wide-ranging literature review for discussion at a meeting in India between Hubs and the rest of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (Doherty, Gilson and EQUINET 2005). The review was based on literature sourced from within the consortium managing the hub as well as from institutions networked with the consortium members. Some key references from existing materials were also followed up. Given the wide scope of work on health systems, it was not feasible to conduct a general electronic search. Nor was it possible to access substantial quantities of grey literature, given the difficulties associated with identifying and locating copies of this type of literature. Because of time constraints, the review focused on reviews of international experience and articles documenting new lines of investigation. Articles that were, at the time, in press were specifically sought out to ensure as up-todate an evidence base as possible. The review began by presenting data showing that health services tend to be used proportionately more by richer than poorer social groups. It analysed the social factors affecting access to, and uptake of, health services and showed how these interact with inequitable features of the health care system. Overall, the review argued that the interaction between household health-seeking behaviour and experience of the health system generates differential health and economic consequences across social groups. The long-term costs of seeking care often impoverish poorer households, reinforcing preexisting social stratification. The review then examined in some detail the features of the health care system that contribute to inequity (such as certain approaches to priority-setting, resource allocation, financing, organisation, human resources, and management and regulation). (Excerpt)
Everybody's business. Strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007.  p.The primary aim of this Framework for Action is to clarify and strengthen WHO’s role in health systems in a changing world. There is continuity in the values that underpin it from its constitution, the Alma Ata Declaration of Health For All, and the principles of Primary Health Care. Consultations over the last year have emphasized the importance of WHO’s institutional role in relationship to health systems. The General Programme of Work (2006-2015) and Medium-term Strategic Plan 2008-2013 (MTSP) focus on what needs to be done. While reaffirming the technical agenda, this Framework concentrates more on how the WHO secretariat can provide more effective support to Member States and partners in this domain. (Excerpt)
World Policy Journal. 2010 Summer; 27(2):41-46.Leaders should forget all about quick fixes, because quick fixes will never solve the most pressing global health challenges. World leaders cannot assume, "Oh, we are providing nets, so the nets are going to solve the entire malaria problem." Quite the opposite: just because the nets are being provided does not mean that they are being used. And therefore, we must listen to whoever would fund the strategies, policies and strategic plans developed within those countries to maximize impact. In Uganda, for instance, we have a forum where we have both the donors and the Ugandan government sitting together agreeing on the priorities. So let us address the priorities of the country together rather than having outside organizations say, "This is what we think is correct, we will dictate it to you, and we expect it to work." I've said many times that this does not work. Whatever health crisis is being addressed must be approached with the understanding that we are living in a global community. We must understand that whatever is happening in one country can easily spread to and affect almost anywhere in a very short period of time. We need to bear in mind that we are not only protecting the people we are providing services to, but we are also protecting ourselves. (Excerpt)
Agenda for accelerated country action for women, girls, gender equality and HIV: Operational plan for the UNAIDS action framework: Addressing women, girls, gender equality and HIV.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . vi, 28 p.The UNAIDS Action Framework was developed to address the gender inequalities and human rights violations that put women and girls at a greater risk of HIV and that threaten the gains that have been made in preventing HIV transmission and in increasing access to antiretroviral therapy. It focuses on country-level action, capitalizes on the role of the UN joint teams on AIDS, and fosters country leadership.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2009. 8 p.This report shows how countries with low prevalence of male circumcision but high prevalence of HIV have made progress to scale up male circumcision services.
Repositioning family planning: Guidelines for advocacy action. Le repositionnement de la planification familiale: Directives pour actions de plaidoyer.
Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], 2008. 64 p.Countries throughout Africa are engaged in an important initiative to reposition family planning as a priority on their national and local agendas. Provision of family planning services in Africa is hindered by poverty, poor access to services and commodities, conflicts, poor coordination of the programmes, and dwindling donor funding. Although family planning enhances efforts to improve health and accelerate development, shifting international priorities, health sector reform, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and other factors have affected its importance in recent years. Traditional beliefs favouring high fertility, religious barriers, and lack of male involvement have weakened family planning interventions. The combination of these factors has led to low contraceptive use, high fertility rates in many countries, and high unmet needs for family planning throughout the region. Family planning advocates must take action to change this situation. Family planning, considered an essential component of primary health care and reproductive health, plays a major role in reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and transmission of HIV. It contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the targets of the Health-for-All Policy for the 21st century in the Africa Region: Agenda 2020. In recognition of its importance, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa developed a framework (2005-014) for accelerated action to reposition family planning on national agendas and in reproductive health services, which was adopted by African ministers of health in 2004. The framework calls for increase in efforts to advocate for recognition of "the pivotal role of family planning" in achieving health and development objectives at all levels. This toolkit aims to help those working in family planning across Africa to effectively advocate for renewed emphasis on family planning to enhance the visibility, availability, and quality of family planning services for increased contraceptive use and healthy timing and spacing of births, and ultimately, improved quality of life across the region. It was developed in response to requests from several countries to assist them in accelerating their family planning advocacy efforts.
AIDS. 2008; 22 Suppl 2:S9-S17.The University of California, Los Angeles Program in Global Health performed a landscape analysis based on interviews conducted between November 2006 and February 2007 with 35 key informants from major international organizations conducting HIV/AIDS work. Institutions represented included multilateral organizations, foundations, and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this analysis is to assist major foundations and other institutions to understand better the international HIV/AIDS policy landscape and to formulate research and development programmes that can make a significant contribution to moving important issues forward in the HIV/AIDS policy arena. Topics identified during the interviews were organized around the four major themes of the Ford Foundation's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative: leadership and leadership development; equity; accountability; and global partnerships. Key informants focused on the need for a visionary response to the HIV pandemic, the need to maintain momentum, ways to improve the scope of leadership development programmes, ideas for improving gender equity and addressing regional disparities and the needs of vulnerable populations, recommendations for strengthening accountability mechanisms among governments, foundations, and civil society and on calling for increased collaboration and partnership among key players in the global HIV/AIDS response. (Author's)
Strengthening the Education Sector Response to HIV and AIDS in the Caribbean. UNESCO / WB partnership in support of CARICOM strategy in education and HIV and AIDS.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2007 Dec 14. 29 p.This report presents the findings and outcomes of the three joint UNESCO/WB missions to Guyana, Jamaica and St. Lucia, and elaborates on next steps identified for action at both national and regional levels. The report also sets these findings and next steps within the broader context of the Caribbean plan for action and presents in its appendices, sample resources to guide the development of a comprehensive response to HIV & AIDS by the education sector.
Journal of International Women's Studies. 2007 Nov; 9(1):212-233.This essay analyzes the contributions of three Young Women's Christian Association leaders who chaired the nongovernmental organization forum planning committees during the UN Decade for Women (1975-1985). It assesses the effectiveness of their leadership and addresses questions of distribution and uses of power within women's international NGOs and in relationship to the global feminist community. (author's)