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ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:151, 562.The United Nations (UN) General Assembly Resolution No. 44/76, December 1898, regarding elderly women, begins with a review of past resolutions concerning the situation of elderly women in the world. It recognizes the necessity of considering the elderly an important and necessary element in the development process at all levels within a given society; that age segregation, in addition to sex stereotyping, makes the social and economic problems of elderly women even more acute; that elderly women are often viewed only as beneficiaries and not as contributors to development; and that while statistics form an essential ingredient of planning and policy evaluation, few statistics are available on the situation of elderly women. The resolution recommends that the UN take the lead in recognizing the important contributions made by older women and their potential to participate in and shape the future of their societies; reaffirms Economic and Social Council resolution 1989/38, requesting the Secretary-General to organize a seminar, within available budgetary resources, to study questions arising from an in-depth analysis of the situation of women as they age, to transmit the results to the Commission on the Status of Women, under the priority theme of development, at its 1992 session, during the observance of the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the International Plan of Action on Aging. The resolution invites the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women and the Statistical Office of the Secretariat to pay specific attention to older women in their efforts to improve methodology for data-gathering on women.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:136, 557-8.Resolution No. 44/75, December 8, 1989 of the UN General Assembly calling for the Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat begins by remembering the relevant paragraphs of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, in which importance is attached to the appointment of women at senior decision-making and managerial levels, with the deployment of a senior-level officer in a position designated as the focal point for women in the office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management, to be responsible for all aspects of the action program for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat; the resolution also remembers past resolutions pertaining to the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat, as well as other relate resolutions, decisions, and reports, such as the October 1989 report of the Secretary-General on the composition of the Secretariat, in which 22 of 24 Under-Secretary-General positions are held by men, that 17 of 17 Assistant Secretary General positions are held by men, that 78 of 85 D-2 positions are held by men, and that 220 of 235 D-1 positions are held by men. The resolution request the Secretary-General to intensify his efforts to increase the number of women employed throughout the UN system, particularly in senior policy-level and decision-making posts, in order to achieve an overall rate of participation by women of 30% by 1990; it requests renewed efforts to ensure equitable representation of women from developing countries in posts subject to geographical distribution; reiterates its request to Member States to continue to support efforts of the UN and its specialized agencies to increase the proportions of women in the Professional categories, nominate more women candidates, and encourage women to apply for vacant posts, and requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its 45th session an outline of a program for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat for the period 1991-1995.
Resolution No. 44/73. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 8 December 1989.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:124, 548-9.Resolution 44/73 of the UN General Assembly concerns the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of discrimination against Women, December 8, 1989. It begins with acknowledgements that one of the purposes of the UN is to promote universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction of any kind, including distinction as to sex; it notes the emphasis placed by the "World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace" on the ratification of and accession to the Convention and acknowledges the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the Convention. After noting that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women agreed to take due account of the different cultural and socio-economic systems of States parties to the Convention, the Resolution welcomes the ratification of or accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women by an increasing number of Member States, and offers a series of recommendations to further its goals, including the proposals of the Secretary-General for full funding of the Committee, and requests that the program budget for 1990-1991 provide for attendance at all the Committee's meetings by relevant professional staff from the Division for the Advancement of Women of the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat, legal staff experts in human rights treaty implementation and adequate secretarial staff, and for the necessary facilities for the effective functioning of the Committee in order to enable it to carry out its mandate as efficiently as the human rights treaty bodies.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:124, 550-1.The UN General Assembly's December 1989 resolution No. 44/78, addresses Improvement of the Status of Women in Rural Areas. It begins with the recollecting of prior resolutions, an acknowledgement of the importance given to the problems of rural women in Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/29 of May 1988, in which the Council urged Governments and development agencies of the UN system to pay particular attention to the role of women in rural development, and it takes note with satisfaction of the results of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects." The resolution recognizes that the economic crises in many developing countries has severely affected the socio-economic status of women, especially in rural areas, requiring the urgent need to take appropriate measures aimed at improving the situation of women in rural areas. Beginning with praise for the Secretary-General's report on the national experience relating to the improvement of the situation of women in rural areas, it then calls upon Member states to make use of the report and the main conclusions and recommendations of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects" to endeavor to reflect them in national development strategies, paying special attention to 1) setting up or strengthening national machineries for the advancement of women in order to ensure effective execution, monitoring, and evaluation of national strategies in the field of rural development and to strengthen liaison with agricultural and rural development institutions, 2) identifying and formulating more comprehensive priority development projects aimed at improving the situation of rural women and integrating them into national development plans at all levels, 3) taking measures to give rural women broader access to material resources. The resolution also requests that the organizations of the UN system promote the realization of programs and projects aimed at the improvement of the situation of rural women and that the Secretary-General prepare a report on the implementation of the present resolution and submit it to the General Assembly at its 48th session, through the Economic and Social Council.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:77, 463-4.Resolution No. 44/82, December 8, 1989, of the UN General Assembly declaring 1994 the International Year if the Family begins with resolving to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, with a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being, which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relation between nations, guided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, according to which the widest possible protection and assistance should be accorded to the family. The Resolution recognizes the efforts of Governments at the local, regional, and national levels in carrying out specific programs concerning the family, in which the UN may have an important role to play, and in raising awareness, increasing understanding, and promoting policies that improve the position and well-being of the family. 1994 is the International Year of the Family; major activities for the observance of the Year should be concentrated at the local, regional, and national levels and assisted by the UN and its system of organizations, with a view to creating among Governments, policy-makers, and the public a greater awareness of the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. The General Assembly requests the Secretary-General to prepare a draft program for the preparation for the observance of the Year, to submit a progress report to the General Assembly, and take specific measures, through all the communication media at his disposal, to give widespread publicity to the activities of the UN system in the area of family issues and to increase the dissemination of information on this subject.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:204, 594-5.The UN General Assembly Resolution No. 44/127, December 15, 1989, on International Literacy Year (ILY) begin with the General Assembly recalling past resolutions relevant to literacy, i.e., the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, where the right of every individual to education is recognized, and the realization that eradication of illiteracy is one of the paramount objectives of the International Development Strategy for the Third UN Development Decade and should become one of the objectives of the strategy for the 4th UN development decade, and that illiteracy seriously hinders the process of economic and social development and the cultural and spiritual advancement of society, and that functional literacy and adequate education represents an indispensable element for development and for the harnessing of science, technology, and human resources for economic and social progress. The resolution commends the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which has assumed the role of lead organization for ILY, for its work to ensure adequate preparation for ILY, and commends those Governments establishing national committees and programs aimed at meeting the objectives of the ILY. The Assembly expresses its appreciation to the specialized agencies and other organizations of the UN for their contribution to the preparation for ILY; welcomes the convening of the World Conference on Education for All, to be held in Thailand in March 1990 under the joint sponsorship of the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the UN Development Program, the UN Children's Fund, and the World Bank. It invites relevant organizations to take appropriate measures towards achieving the objectives of ILY, requests wide publicity to the activities and measures to be undertaken during ILY, and requests a report on the implementation of the program for ILY.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:136, 555-7.The UN General Assembly resolution No. 44/171, December 19, 1989, addresses the integration of women in development by recalling previous resolutions on the effective mobilization and integration of women in development, requesting the Secretary-General to update the "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development" on a regular basis, as well; it stresses the need for the operational activities for development of the UN system to take into account the position of women and recognizes the catalytic role played by the UN Development Fund for Women; it recalls the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and recognizes the contribution of new concepts and methods in the collection of statistics on women; it highlights that the "World Survey" as a fundamental assessment of progress or lack of progress in the advancement of women, should constitute the basic documentation for the world conference on women envisaged in the Nairobi Strategies; it recognizes that for many women, particularly in developing countries, the evolution of the economic and social situation during the 1980s has not resulted in the benefits anticipated at the beginning of the decade. Therefore, the Secretary-General is requested to distribute the "1989 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development," especially to national machineries for the advancement of women, ministries concerned with economic policy, and universities; the next edition of the "Survey" should take into account the previous recommendations, address the impact of women of the prevailing economic conditions in developing countries, and identify obstacles to women's economic role in key areas of development, particularly, women and education, heath, population, income distribution, employment, and the environment.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1989 Summer; 23(2):201-18.Since 1978, massive influxes of asylum seekers have placed great strain upon recipient states in Central America. At the global level, protection and assistance to refugees is entrusted to the United National High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). At the regional level, one would expect involvement by the Organization of American States with Central America refugees; either to supplement UNHCR activities or to enforce independent inter-American standards. This article reviews inter-American standards and agencies of concern for asylum seekers and refugees. Special attention is given to the inter-American human rights regime as the mechanism best suited to supplement or complement UNHCR activities in Central America. (author's)
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-4.Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984.