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Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Sep; 84(9):685-764.The International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT) aims to put a stop to the deadly trade in fake drugs, which studies suggest kill thousands of people every year. "We need to help people become more aware of the growing market in counterfeit medicines and the public health risks associated with this illegal practice," said Dr Howard Zucker, Assistant Director-General for the Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals cluster of departments at WHO. The taskforce will encourage the public, distributors, pharmacists and hospital staff to inform the authorities about their suspicions regarding the authenticity of a drug or vaccine. In a parallel move, the taskforce will help governments crack down on corruption in the sections of their police forces and customs authorities charged with enforcing laws against drug counterfeiting. Drug manufacturers will be encouraged to make their products more difficult to fake. (excerpt)
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-4.Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984.
California Western International Law Journal. 1978 Spring; 8(2):342-67.The legislative assembly of the Marharashtra State, India, passed in 1976 a bill for compulsory sterilization which would limit families to a governmentally determined size. Such imposed prescription conflicts with the principle, recognized in 1966 by the UN, of the human right to determine family size, space children, and, most important, to have an awareness of and access to the means necessary to facilitate that decision. This principle accepts the idea that merely providing contraception is an ineffective and deficient method to reduce population. Thus, in order to be permissible, any governmental limitation on individual freedom to determine family size can be imposed only subsequent to the actual and full availability of birth control information and methods. The Marharashtra Family Act requires that if a couple has 3 living children one of the parents be sterilized, unless the children are of the same sex. This Act, as written, exceeds the scope of permissible limitation to family size, since the Act fails to protect the individual's right prior to sterilization. Indeed, there is no provision in the Act to ensure that the government will inform the people of the available methods of family planning prior to the imposition of sterilization. The existing structure of the Act, which has not been implemented yet, must be completed with a scheme for compulsory family planning education and for the provision of birth control methods before compulsory sterilization can be enacted. Without such amendment the Marharashtra Family Act will not be compatible with the human right of family planning, and continued UN funding in support of its population program would no longer be justified. The article includes the full text of bill No. 25 of 1976 for restrictions on the size of certain families in Marharashtra.
In: Lipman-Blumen J and Bernard J, eds. Sex roles and social policy: a complex social science equation. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1979. 349-54.International law as it deals with human rights should be used by women as a lever to advance the status of women. International law has had no impact on improving the condition of women in developing areas at present, but the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Declaration of Human Rights, the American Convention on Human Rights, and the Pact of San Jose de Costa Rica could serve as a sounding board where women could bring violations to world attention. Although some view international law as insignificant in meaning and largely ignored, it can still raise the conscience regarding women's rights and may lead to social, economic, and political equalities. In the crusade of human rights by international law, it is important to define goals which will be observed and enforced.
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development; status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 355-384The Brazilian Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) became an IPPF affiliate in 1967, setting the objective of establishing a national family planning program able to provide medical-educational assistance to all layers of society, preferably under the auspices of the government, and to include the free distribution of contraceptives and the establishment of an education-training infrastructure to promote the concept of responsible parenthood. Political, church, and institutional leaders were reached through family planning seminars. Community programs now exist in 5 states and are based on respect for local traditions, use of indigenous human and material resources, and the collaboration of natural and institutional leaders. Despite opposition from Catholic priests, leftists, and nationalistic factions, public opinion polls indicate growing favorable attitudes toward family planning. A series of recognitions and exemptions at the federal, state, and municipal government levels have been obtained, and the government has moved from a stance of omission and neutrality toward one overtly favorable to family planning. The position taken by the Brazilian delegation at the 1974 World Population Conference and Brazil's 2nd National Development Plan both indicate that the government officially recognizes the right of couples to receive information and services enabling them to control their own fertility; only the existence of concrete measures for doing so under government sponsorship is lacking. Barriers to family planning implementation include the lack of previous effective experience in family planning programs, the scarcity of human and material resources, a time-lag between the position adopted by the national leadership and the actions undertaken by government agencies, other institutions which operate in the field without regard to national priorities, conditioning of family planning associations to the goals of donating institutions, and attempts by various international institutions to impose their own work methodology and control system on national associations. IPPF has recently projected certain priorities which do not meet the needs of many countries. Certain USAID requirements, such as that stipulating that countries receive contraceptives from the U.S., should be waived in accordance with the culture and self-determination of each country.