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  1. 1

    Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

    United Nations

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 2000. 11 p.

    Declaring that effective action to prevent and combat trafficking in persons, especially women and children, requires a comprehensive international approach in the countries of origin, transit and destination that includes measures to prevent such trafficking, to punish the traffickers and to protect the victims of such trafficking, including by protecting their internationally recognized human rights, Taking into account the fact that, despite the existence of a variety of international instruments containing rules and practical measures to combat the exploitation of persons, especially women and children, there is no universal instrument that addresses all aspects of trafficking in persons, Concerned that, in the absence of such an instrument, persons who are vulnerable to trafficking will not be sufficiently protected, Recalling General Assembly resolution 53/111 of 9 December 1998, in which the Assembly decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental ad hoc committee for the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive international convention against transnational organized crime and of discussing the elaboration of, inter alia, an international instrument addressing trafficking in women and children, Convinced that supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime with an international instrument for the prevention, suppression and punishment of trafficking in persons, especially women and children, will be useful in preventing and combating that crime. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 2. International instruments: international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international maritime and aviation law, miscellaneous. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [415] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Freedom of Movement in international law and United States policy.


    In: McNeill, W.H. and Adams, R.S., eds. Human migration: patterns and policies. Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1978. p. 317-335

    The 20th century has seen the advent of both the adoption of human rights codes and the restriction of international migration. The view of the right to emigrate as a fundamental human right is analyzed, and reasons used to justify limiting this right are quoted and refuted. Efforts to legitimize the right to freedom of international movement undertaken by the U.N. are described. In particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, and The Helsinki Final Act are considered. The action of the U.S. in regard to signing and/or ratifying these documents is explained and implications of this action are pointed out in relation to internal policies and international actions. Acknowledgement of these rights would be devastating to Communist countries and monitors in the Soviet Union report that the Soviet Government pays only lip service to its international human rights obligations. The position which President Carter has taken in regard to signing the final ratification of the human rights documents by the U.S. is applauded.
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