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In: McNeill, W.H. and Adams, R.S., eds. Human migration: patterns and policies. Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1978. p. 317-335The 20th century has seen the advent of both the adoption of human rights codes and the restriction of international migration. The view of the right to emigrate as a fundamental human right is analyzed, and reasons used to justify limiting this right are quoted and refuted. Efforts to legitimize the right to freedom of international movement undertaken by the U.N. are described. In particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, and The Helsinki Final Act are considered. The action of the U.S. in regard to signing and/or ratifying these documents is explained and implications of this action are pointed out in relation to internal policies and international actions. Acknowledgement of these rights would be devastating to Communist countries and monitors in the Soviet Union report that the Soviet Government pays only lip service to its international human rights obligations. The position which President Carter has taken in regard to signing the final ratification of the human rights documents by the U.S. is applauded.
In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 129-166In the 1965-1975 period, population growth in Latin America was the highest in the world. Decreases in the rate of growth in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela were couneracted by increased rates in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Outmigration in large numbers has not helped the problem. This large growth, causing particular problems in urban areas and a high dependency ratio, has hindered efforts at economic and social development. Lack of available family planning supplies results in a high incidence of illegal abortion and maternal illness and death. There is growing awareness of the need for family planning programs. In the 1965-1975 period, family planning programs were established in most Latin American Countries, with notable success in Mexico. There is now increased government support for family planning and increased availability of contraceptive supplies. In the early 1970s, there were shifts to greater usage of paramedical personnel and to distribution of oral contraceptives without prescription. There has been increased attention to training in the field and to information programs. Sources of external family planning aid to latin America are outlined. The demographic situation in each country is described.