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[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1989 Summer; 23(2):201-18.Since 1978, massive influxes of asylum seekers have placed great strain upon recipient states in Central America. At the global level, protection and assistance to refugees is entrusted to the United National High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). At the regional level, one would expect involvement by the Organization of American States with Central America refugees; either to supplement UNHCR activities or to enforce independent inter-American standards. This article reviews inter-American standards and agencies of concern for asylum seekers and refugees. Special attention is given to the inter-American human rights regime as the mechanism best suited to supplement or complement UNHCR activities in Central America. (author's)
Socio-economic planning: legislative measures for improvement of the nutritional status of the mother/child dyad.
In: Hambraeus L, Sjolin S, eds. The mother/child dyad: nutritional aspects. Stockholm, Almqvist and Wiksell, 1979. 143-9. (Symposia of the Swedish Nutrition Foundation 15)Many legislative measures aimed at improving maternal and child nutrition were adopted by developed countries during the 20th century and some of these measures were also adopted by developing countries. These measures were reviewed and recent efforts by international, national, and institutional bodies to formulate policies to deal with nutritional problems were discussed. Measures adopted during the: 1900s with varying degrees of success included: 1) the introduction of nutritional programs into the school curriculum; 2) programs to reduce maternal nutritional deficiencies during the pregnancy; 3) measures to delay the age at marriage; 4) improvements in prenatal care; 5) hospital based programs to educate postpartum women in child nutrition; 6) programs aimed at promoting breastfeeding; 4) programs to provide low cost supplementary weaning foods; and 8) efforts to regulate the manufacture and sale of baby food products. At the international level various bodies have recommended the adoption of measures to improve working conditions for lactating and pregnant women and to reduce abusive marketing practices. At the national level, Algeria adopted policies aimed at promoting breastfeeding and improving nutritional standards through a variety of programs. China successfully promoted breastfeeding by adopting measures which make it easier for working women to breastfeed. France recently adopted policies aimed at regulating the sale of infant food products. In the future more efforts should be directed toward designing nutritional programs which take into account the needs of the local community and which provide nutritional services as an integral part of maternal and child health and community health services. Attention should also be directed toward improving the nutritional knowledge of the public and of the health professional.
Science News. 1979 Feb 10; 115(6):86-87.At a recent National Academy of Sciences conference on pharmaceuticals for developing countries, the severe problems caused in developing countries by preventable diseases were emphasized. U.S. drug companies charged that U.S. Food and Drug administration (FDA) restrictions on exporting and providing funds for drugs which are unapproved for use in the U.S. hamper the use of these drugs and vaccines in communities where they are desperately needed. FDA officials are currently seeking Congressional amendments to the export provisions which would grant special approval for the exportation of these agents to fully-informed countries. In order to overcome economic difficulties in obtaining drugs, the WHO is encouraging regional groups to make bulk purchases of essential drugs. Suggestions to increase the production of vaccines include using an advance order mechanism and the establishment of quality control and packaging facilities in the target country. Innovative health infrastructures are currently being developed in 42 countries to deliver vaccines to some of the 80 million newborns who otherwise remain unvaccinated each year. As the U.S. strives to develop an international health policy, it must be cautious not to export its mistakes along with its technology.
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development; status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 355-384The Brazilian Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) became an IPPF affiliate in 1967, setting the objective of establishing a national family planning program able to provide medical-educational assistance to all layers of society, preferably under the auspices of the government, and to include the free distribution of contraceptives and the establishment of an education-training infrastructure to promote the concept of responsible parenthood. Political, church, and institutional leaders were reached through family planning seminars. Community programs now exist in 5 states and are based on respect for local traditions, use of indigenous human and material resources, and the collaboration of natural and institutional leaders. Despite opposition from Catholic priests, leftists, and nationalistic factions, public opinion polls indicate growing favorable attitudes toward family planning. A series of recognitions and exemptions at the federal, state, and municipal government levels have been obtained, and the government has moved from a stance of omission and neutrality toward one overtly favorable to family planning. The position taken by the Brazilian delegation at the 1974 World Population Conference and Brazil's 2nd National Development Plan both indicate that the government officially recognizes the right of couples to receive information and services enabling them to control their own fertility; only the existence of concrete measures for doing so under government sponsorship is lacking. Barriers to family planning implementation include the lack of previous effective experience in family planning programs, the scarcity of human and material resources, a time-lag between the position adopted by the national leadership and the actions undertaken by government agencies, other institutions which operate in the field without regard to national priorities, conditioning of family planning associations to the goals of donating institutions, and attempts by various international institutions to impose their own work methodology and control system on national associations. IPPF has recently projected certain priorities which do not meet the needs of many countries. Certain USAID requirements, such as that stipulating that countries receive contraceptives from the U.S., should be waived in accordance with the culture and self-determination of each country.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 129-166In the 1965-1975 period, population growth in Latin America was the highest in the world. Decreases in the rate of growth in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela were couneracted by increased rates in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Outmigration in large numbers has not helped the problem. This large growth, causing particular problems in urban areas and a high dependency ratio, has hindered efforts at economic and social development. Lack of available family planning supplies results in a high incidence of illegal abortion and maternal illness and death. There is growing awareness of the need for family planning programs. In the 1965-1975 period, family planning programs were established in most Latin American Countries, with notable success in Mexico. There is now increased government support for family planning and increased availability of contraceptive supplies. In the early 1970s, there were shifts to greater usage of paramedical personnel and to distribution of oral contraceptives without prescription. There has been increased attention to training in the field and to information programs. Sources of external family planning aid to latin America are outlined. The demographic situation in each country is described.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, May 1967In 1967, Senator J.W. Fulbright intorduced bill S.1264 to provide U.S. help for voluntary family planning programs overseas. This pamphlet includes the text of this bill as well as supporting testimony on the world population crisis. Included are statements by U Thant, Fulbright, Percy, Gruening, President Johnson, Draper, Gardner, Dupre, Ewell, Morgan, and Findley.
Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.