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In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 129-166In the 1965-1975 period, population growth in Latin America was the highest in the world. Decreases in the rate of growth in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela were couneracted by increased rates in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Outmigration in large numbers has not helped the problem. This large growth, causing particular problems in urban areas and a high dependency ratio, has hindered efforts at economic and social development. Lack of available family planning supplies results in a high incidence of illegal abortion and maternal illness and death. There is growing awareness of the need for family planning programs. In the 1965-1975 period, family planning programs were established in most Latin American Countries, with notable success in Mexico. There is now increased government support for family planning and increased availability of contraceptive supplies. In the early 1970s, there were shifts to greater usage of paramedical personnel and to distribution of oral contraceptives without prescription. There has been increased attention to training in the field and to information programs. Sources of external family planning aid to latin America are outlined. The demographic situation in each country is described.
In: Population and the Role of Law in the Americas (Proceedings of a seminar of the Human Rights Committee at the 18th conference of the Inter-American Bar Association, Rio de Janeiro, August 1973). Medford, Mass., Tufts University, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1974. (Law and Population Series No. 18). p.47-52The sale and distribution of contraceptives and the dissemination of information about them is legal in all 50 states. Only sales to minors, advertising, and places of advertising and sale are restricted. The current trend has been towards state-supported family planning services, sex education in schools, and easing of restrictions on voluntary sterilization. The U.S. Commission on Population Growth and the American Future recommended a slowdown in growth and the U.S. Congress has authorized the development of family planning and information services. The U.S. Supreme Court has applied the principle of right of privacy to contraceptive use by individuals. Support has also been given to U.N. programs and declarations on family planning. Statutes in all nations should provde for the changes in social attitudes and the population problems in conformity with the U.N. resolutions.
Kwaluseni, Swaziland, University College of Swaziland Department of Law, Law and Population Project, 1982. 75 p.This report describes the findings of a 2-year research project conducted principally by the Law Department of the University College of Swaziland with input from the Geography Department and the Ministry of Health, funded by UNFPA. The study questions the extent to which the legal system can be used as an instrument of population policy and development. In this context population policy and development can be characterized as processes which increase approximation to the goal of an optimum population. The different essays dealing with the various aspects of law and population underline the multidimensional and complex character of the population problem. The monograph is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 describes the population including spatial distribution, age-sex distribution and the implications of population growth for development in the area. Part 2 describes the institutions governing family growth and planning including traditional methods of birth control and attitudes towards contraception. The laws of marriage, illegitimacy, and adoption are discussed including the Common Law and Statutory Position, and the Income Tax Law is described. Part 3 contains discussions on the uses of the resources of the country from a legal point of view. This includes theory of property law, the morphogenesis of property regimes and 4 alternatives suggested for the future of property law in Swaziland. Population and development is an interactive process because what can be achieved through access to land affects what can be achieved in social investment, education, and health. This study attempts to deal with the larger social setting, the socioeconomic matrix, than with technical legal provisions in order to avoid the narrow analyses of the past.