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  1. 1
    803283

    Some factors influencing the regulation of pharmaceuticals in developing countries, with particular reference to Africa.

    Johnson-Romuald F

    International Digest of Health Legislation. 1980; 31(3):453-83.

    This long review discusses a few of the factors liable to influence attempts at drug regulation in developing countries, i.e., the existing situation with regard to pharmaceuticals and some of the manifold factors (psychosocial, geopolitical, etc.) that are likely to affect legislation, particularly in countries recently achieving independence, as well as all developing countries. Sections in the monograph include, an analysis of the present situation of pharmaceutical distribution and regulation in developing countries; problems in the regulation of pharmaceuticals in Africa; analysis of legislation already in force (including those countries which have communicated their legislation to WHO and those who have not and why); adequacy of pharmaceutical supplies and approriateness of legislation; priorities (e.g., pricing, regulation, importation, distribution, quality control, and substance control); and problems connected with enforcement of legal measures (e.g., unguarded frontiers, inadequacy of administration, regional uniformity of legislation, and shortage of qualified pharmacy and medical personnel). The monograph ends with published pharmaceutical legislation in developing countries, from Algeria to Zambia.
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  2. 2
    746473

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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