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  1. 1
    278641

    Where are the women? Gender discrimination in refugee policies and practices.

    Valji N; De La Hunt LA; Moffett H

    Agenda. 2003; (55):61-72.

    Refugee demographics worldwide show that approximately 80 percent of an estimated 27 million refugees and displaced persons today are women or children. Yet this percentage stands in stark contrast to statistics that reveal that in 1998, for example, only 17.8 percent of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-assisted refugees in South Africa were female. Also, according to the ‘Gender Policy Statement’, recently released by the Department of Justice, it is estimated that women constitute only five percent of those who have been formally granted refugee status in South Africa. This troubling disparity is not restricted to South Africa only. Although it is known that the majority of refugees are women, as a general rule, refugee women have not been afforded anything like the protection offered refugee men in refugee-receiving countries throughout the globe, particularly in the developed world. Until the last decade, refugees were considered male almost by default; refugee women and children were recognised only as part of a ‘family package’. Gender considerations - including the realisation that women might be at especial risk - are relatively new. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    190582

    Female genital circumcision: medical and cultural considerations.

    Little CM

    Journal of Cultural Diversity. 2003 Spring; 10(1):30-34.

    Female circumcision (FC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), is a procedure that involves partial or complete removal of external female genitalia. The definition given by the World's Health Organization (WHO) states that female circumcision "comprise all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons" (WHO, 1998, p.5). The United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Population Fund, and the WHO have jointly issued a statement that FC and FGM causes unacceptable harm and issued a call for the elimination of this practice worldwide. The WHO also contends that female circumcision is a "violation of internationally accepted rights" (WHO, p.1). Female circumcision is a widespread cultural practice and affects millions of young women. Issues related to female circumcision that are of special concern are health consequences, civil rights, cultural considerations, and legal and ethical aspects. The purpose of this paper is to address the incidence of FC and FGM, the historical background, the procedure, the medical complications and cultural considerations. Legal and ethical issues of FGM will also be discussed. (author's)
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