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  1. 1

    End child labour. Background information.


    Santiago, Chile, EarthAction, [2003]. [4] p.

    In their Handbook for Parliamentarians, the International Labour Organisation and the International Parliamentary Union define child labour as "work, that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; by obliging them to leave school prematurely; or by requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work." In its most extreme forms, it involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the million streets of large cities – all of this at a very early age. Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), an international treaty ratified by 191 countries, states that every child has the right to be "...protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development." This clear, unambiguous language protects all children (anyone 17 or younger) from all forms of child labour throughout the world. It's important to note that the term “child labour" does not refer simply to any work performed by a child, but specifically to work done by a child that is considered detrimental to their growth and violates their rights. A child could attend school and still be able to work with their family part time to help grow food or learn a skill, activities which wouldn't be considered harmful. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Parliamentary alert. End child labour.


    Santiago, Chile, EarthAction, 2003. [2] p.

    Child labour refers to work that is dangerous or harmful to a child's health and development. Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children work as child labourers. Child labour is found everywhere, but especially in developing countries where it is part of the cycle of poverty, Bonded labour, virtual slavery chained by constant family debt, is common in South Asia. Child servants are hidden and abused in the homes of the rich in Latin America. Millions of children work long hours on plantations in Africa, or in factories throughout the world. Child labourers lose their health, their lives, and at the very least, their precious childhood meant for playing, making friends and learning. (author's)
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  3. 3

    [International legislation on children's rights: application and obligatory status in Ecuador] Legislacion internacional sobre derechos de los ninos. Aplicacion y obligatoriedad en el Ecuador.

    Marquez Matamoros A

    Quito, Ecuador, Ediciones Abya-Yala, 2000. XXII, 294 p.

    This compilation of the complete texts of the Ecuadorian constitution and 20 international instruments comprising the UN doctrine on the human rights of children and adolescents provides structure for a dispersed collection to facilitate study and comparison. The 20 normative works include conventions, declarations, pacts, directives, and regulations, most of which were ratified or are in process of ratification by Ecuador. Article 163 of Ecuador’s constitution states that international treaties and conventions approved by the National Congress are incorporated into national internal law from their promulgation in the Official Register and take precedence over existing laws and norms. They are exceeded in normative force only by the Constitution. A brief introductory commentary discusses the doctrines that have informed legislation on children and adolescents during the twentieth century. Two sections compare in tabular form themes regarding children and adolescents in the Ecuadorian Constitution and the 20 international instruments, arranged according to terminology and by document. Two concordances identify the themes dealing with children and adolescents and their exact location within another 77 international instruments on related topics such as human rights, women’s rights, and the International Labor Organization. The concordances permit rapid search for any theme of interest regarding rights of adolescents and children in the two sets of documents. A summary table provides the date of adoption, ratification, and publication in the Official Register of each of the 20 documents.
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