Your search found 62 Results

  1. 1
    327135

    Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/50.

    United Nations. Commission on Human Rights

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/50)

    Reaffirming that the equal rights of women and men are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments. Recalling all previous resolutions on this subject. Recalling also the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) which affirms that the human rights of women and of the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights and calls for action to integrate the equal status and human rights of women into the mainstream of United Nations activity system-wide. Welcoming the increased integration of a gender perspective into the work of all entities of the United Nations and the major United Nations conferences, special sessions and summits, such as the special session of the General Assembly on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and their integrated and coordinated follow-up. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    321700

    Supporting gender justice in Afghanistan: opportunities and challenges.

    Mantovani A

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.

    For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    321693

    Breaking the silence -- rape as an international crime.

    Ellis M

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    In 1999, I stood among a sea of 20,000 desperate people on a dirt airfield outside Skopje, Macedonia, listening to one harrowing story after another. I had come to the Stenkovec refugee camp to record those stories and to help set up a system for documenting atrocities in Kosovo. The refugees with whom I spoke described being robbed, beaten, herded together and forced to flee their villages with nothing but the clothes they were wearing. Yet, what I remember most vividly are the lost expressions on the faces of the young women and girls in the camp. At first, they did not speak a word. Their silence acted as a veil, concealing crimes that they could not emotionally recollect. However, slowly, through time and comfort in speaking to female counsellors, their stories emerged. The brutality and systematic consistency of the sexual violence perpetrated on these women were mind-numbing. The widespread practice of rape against Muslim women was more than a consequence of war, it was an instrument of war with the intent of destroying the cultural fabric of a targeted group. This experience brought home to me a truism in international and national conflict: women suffer disproportionately to the atrocities committed against civilians. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    316780

    Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

    United Nations

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 2000. 11 p.

    Declaring that effective action to prevent and combat trafficking in persons, especially women and children, requires a comprehensive international approach in the countries of origin, transit and destination that includes measures to prevent such trafficking, to punish the traffickers and to protect the victims of such trafficking, including by protecting their internationally recognized human rights, Taking into account the fact that, despite the existence of a variety of international instruments containing rules and practical measures to combat the exploitation of persons, especially women and children, there is no universal instrument that addresses all aspects of trafficking in persons, Concerned that, in the absence of such an instrument, persons who are vulnerable to trafficking will not be sufficiently protected, Recalling General Assembly resolution 53/111 of 9 December 1998, in which the Assembly decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental ad hoc committee for the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive international convention against transnational organized crime and of discussing the elaboration of, inter alia, an international instrument addressing trafficking in women and children, Convinced that supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime with an international instrument for the prevention, suppression and punishment of trafficking in persons, especially women and children, will be useful in preventing and combating that crime. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    314640

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [385] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    314639

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 1. International instruments: UNHCR, refugees and asylum, statelessness, internally displaced persons, migrants, human rights. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [585] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    314638

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 2. International instruments: international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international maritime and aviation law, miscellaneous. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [415] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    305974
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO launches taskforce to fight counterfeit drugs.

    Burns W

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Sep; 84(9):685-764.

    The International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT) aims to put a stop to the deadly trade in fake drugs, which studies suggest kill thousands of people every year. "We need to help people become more aware of the growing market in counterfeit medicines and the public health risks associated with this illegal practice," said Dr Howard Zucker, Assistant Director-General for the Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals cluster of departments at WHO. The taskforce will encourage the public, distributors, pharmacists and hospital staff to inform the authorities about their suspicions regarding the authenticity of a drug or vaccine. In a parallel move, the taskforce will help governments crack down on corruption in the sections of their police forces and customs authorities charged with enforcing laws against drug counterfeiting. Drug manufacturers will be encouraged to make their products more difficult to fake. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    301194

    For the sake of honour: but whose honour? "Honour crimes" against women.

    Tripathi A; Yadav S

    Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law. 2004; 5(2):63-78.

    This article endevours to answer questions on this negative social behaviour which have recently engulfed the minds of many, especially in light of its increase in occurrence. These are queries such as: What are honour crimes? Whose honour is at stake? What steps are being taken to curb them? What is the extent to which they are prevalent in Islamic states, as well as Western states and others such as India?1 And where finally does the problem lie? (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    297666
    Peer Reviewed

    Children's right to express views and have them taken seriously.

    Lansdown G; Karkara R

    Lancet. 2006 Feb 25; 367(9511):690-692.

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) introduced the principle that children are entitled to be listened to and taken seriously in all matters that concern them. The Committee on the Rights of the Child, the body set up under the terms of the Convention to monitor governments' progress in implementing its provisions, argues that this right should be understood as an underlying principle by which all other rights are ensured and respected. Historically, children's perspectives and experiences have been disregarded in favour of those of adults; young people considered to lack the expertise and competence to inform adult decision-making, irrespective of whether the decisions directly affect them. Now, governments, policymakers, professionals, and parents are required to take greater note of the concerns of those younger than age 18 years, giving due weight to the views expressed in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    296533

    Sixth Committee acts on wide variety of legal issue: protection of children, detained persons, among them.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23:[4] p..

    The Sixth Committee (Legal) in November addressed a wide variety of legal issues, including those related to protection of children and detained persons, peaceful settlement of disputes, review of the United Nations Charter, and the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations. The General Assembly on 11 December acted on drafts proposed by the Committee on those issues and others. In decision 40/422, adopted without a vote, the Assembly expressed appreciation at the work done in the Third and Sixth Committees in their common endeavour of elaborating a Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption, Nationally and Internationally. It also decided that informal consultations should be held early in the Assembly's 1986 session to achieve agreement on the remaining questions so that the draft Declaration could be adopted at that session. The item has been on the Assembly's agenda since 1980. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    292522
    Peer Reviewed

    When neutrality is a sin: the Darfur crisis and the crisis of humanitarian intervention in Sudan.

    Udombana NJ

    Human Rights Quarterly. 2005 Nov; 27(4):1149-1199.

    The violent conflict that erupted in Darfur, Western Sudan, in 2003 has led to grave violations of human rights and humanitarian law, particularly by militias backed by the Government of Sudan (GoS). This article argues that such grave crimes, which are continuing, justify humanitarian military intervention, as diplomacy has failed to prize the GoS into halting the mayhem. It denounces the apparent posture of neutrality by the international community to these atrocities, stressing that such neutrality helps the killers and not the victims. The article also reflects on the continuing security challenges that face Africa and proffer suggestions towards confronting them. There are two kinds of injustice: the first is found in those who do an injury, the second in those who fail to protect another from injury when they can. Man’s inhumanity to man is not only perpetrated by the vitriolic actions of those who are bad. It is also perpetrated by the vitiating inaction of those who are good. (author's)
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  13. 13
    292284
    Peer Reviewed

    A review of recent OAS research on human trafficking in the Latin American and Caribbean region. [Reseña de investigaciones recientes de la OEA sobre tráfico de seres humanos en América Latina y el Caribe]

    Langberg L

    International Migration. 2005 Jan; 43(1-2):129-139.

    No review of research on human trafficking worldwide would be complete without an examination of the situation in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the past few years, the Latin American and Caribbean regions have witnessed increased activities by the US Government, international organizations, and civil society alerting governments and migrants on the continually evolving nature of human trafficking, both domestically and across international boundaries. Effective policy responses to the scourge of human trafficking require reliable data based on solid empirical research. The clandestine nature of this criminal activity makes it only possible to rely on estimates, primarily from the nongovernmental organization (NGO) community. As in most parts of the world, before the year 2000 the problem had been overlooked and understudied in Latin America and the Caribbean. In an effort to ameliorate this problem and provide governments information that more fully addressed the scope and nature of the problem, the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) and the Inter- American Children’s Institute (IACI), both of the Organization of American States (OAS), collaborated with the International Human Rights Law Institute (IHRLI) of DePaul University to study human trafficking in Latin America and the Caribbean. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    288718
    Peer Reviewed

    Domestic violence as a human rights issue. [La violencia doméstica como un problema de derechos humanos]

    Thomas DQ; Beasley ME

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1993 Feb; 15(1):36-62.

    Part I of this paper examines why domestic violence was not analyzed traditionally as a human rights issue. It discusses the three independent, though interrelated, changes that occurred to begin to make such an analysis possible: the expansion of the application of state responsibility; the recognition of domestic violence as widespread and largely unprocesuted (brought about by greater public and international recognition of the daily violence experienced by women); and, the understanding that the systematic, discriminatory non-prosecution of domestic violence constitutes a violation of the right to equal protection under international law. Part II describes the first practical application of this evolving approach, in Brazil, where the presence of a broad-based women's movement made it possible to collect the data necessary to support an analysis of the government's responsibility for domestic violence. Finally, Part III explores the value and limitations of the human rights approach to combating domestic violence. We conclude that the human rights approach can be a powerful tool to combat domestic violence, but that there are currently both practical and methodological limitations--in part related to the use of the equal protection framework to assign state responsibility for domestic violence--that are problematic and require further analysis to make the approach more effective. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    282163

    Enhancing health policy development: a practical guide to understanding the legislative process.

    Cooper J

    Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004. [36] p.

    This publication is intended as a guide to Ministries/ Departments** of Health in Member States to enable an understanding of the country’s legislative structure and process to be gained prior to technical legislative assistance being provided. It will enable relevant materials to be collected and informative descriptions compiled so that the maximum time is available for providing the technical assistance. Even if external technical assistance in health legislation is not being sought, the carrying out of the tasks covered in this Guide will provide a Ministry of Health with an essential legislative resource that will be available to all concerned with the development and implementation of health policy. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    278641

    Where are the women? Gender discrimination in refugee policies and practices.

    Valji N; De La Hunt LA; Moffett H

    Agenda. 2003; (55):61-72.

    Refugee demographics worldwide show that approximately 80 percent of an estimated 27 million refugees and displaced persons today are women or children. Yet this percentage stands in stark contrast to statistics that reveal that in 1998, for example, only 17.8 percent of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-assisted refugees in South Africa were female. Also, according to the ‘Gender Policy Statement’, recently released by the Department of Justice, it is estimated that women constitute only five percent of those who have been formally granted refugee status in South Africa. This troubling disparity is not restricted to South Africa only. Although it is known that the majority of refugees are women, as a general rule, refugee women have not been afforded anything like the protection offered refugee men in refugee-receiving countries throughout the globe, particularly in the developed world. Until the last decade, refugees were considered male almost by default; refugee women and children were recognised only as part of a ‘family package’. Gender considerations - including the realisation that women might be at especial risk - are relatively new. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    275194

    WHO background paper: Obstacles to women accessing forensic medical exams in cases of sexual violence.

    Brown AW

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2001 Jun 25. 22 p.

    Despite the success of the women’s human rights movement in highlighting the issue of violence against women, many countries have yet to implement the necessary criminal justice system reform to ensure that, at the very least, wo men can pursue redress through the criminal justice system. This work must happen in the larger context of dismantling de jure and de facto discrimination against women. It is women’s second class status that makes them vulnerable to violence and bars them from receiving effective redress through the criminal justice system. Women’s rights activists all over the world are doing extensive work training police, prosecutors and judges to address pervasive bias and ignorance. A group of professionals largely untouched by this advocacy are doctors or other health professionals responsible for collecting, analyzing and testifying about forensic evidence in cases of sexual and gender based violence. In this paper, we call on the World Health Organization (WHO) to establish minimum standards for the collection of evidence in cases of sexual and domestic violence. We also call on WHO to draft a policy paper to support the effective implementation of the minimum standards. This paper should explore obstacles to the successful implementation of these standards such as discriminatory rules of evidence and procedure; the failure of states to criminalize specific conduct such as marital rape; and, the belief that only virgins can be raped. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    193319
    Peer Reviewed

    International infectious disease law.

    Gostin LO

    JAMA. 2004 Jun 2; 291(21):2623-2627.

    The International Health Regulations (IHR), the only global regulations for infectious disease control, have not been significantly changed since they were first issued in 1951. The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently engaged in a process to modernize the IHR. This article reviews WHO's draft revised IHR and recommends new reforms to improve global health, which include (1) a robust mission, emphasizing the WHO's core public health purposes, functions, and essential services; (2) broad scope, flexibly covering diverse health threats; (3) global surveillance, developing informational networks of official and unofficial data sources; (4) national public health systems, setting performance criteria, measuring outcomes, and holding states accountable; (5) human rights protection, setting science-based standards and fair procedures; and (6) good governance, adopting the principles of fairness, objectivity, and transparency. The WHO should ensure state compliance with health norms and generous economic and technical assistance to poorer countries. An important issue for the international community is how sovereign countries can join together to make global health work for everyone, the poor and the wealthy alike. (author's)
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  19. 19
    190582

    Female genital circumcision: medical and cultural considerations.

    Little CM

    Journal of Cultural Diversity. 2003 Spring; 10(1):30-34.

    Female circumcision (FC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), is a procedure that involves partial or complete removal of external female genitalia. The definition given by the World's Health Organization (WHO) states that female circumcision "comprise all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons" (WHO, 1998, p.5). The United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Population Fund, and the WHO have jointly issued a statement that FC and FGM causes unacceptable harm and issued a call for the elimination of this practice worldwide. The WHO also contends that female circumcision is a "violation of internationally accepted rights" (WHO, p.1). Female circumcision is a widespread cultural practice and affects millions of young women. Issues related to female circumcision that are of special concern are health consequences, civil rights, cultural considerations, and legal and ethical aspects. The purpose of this paper is to address the incidence of FC and FGM, the historical background, the procedure, the medical complications and cultural considerations. Legal and ethical issues of FGM will also be discussed. (author's)
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  20. 20
    186431

    The trafficking of women: a human rights issue. [Tráfico de mujeres: un problema de derechos humanos]

    Morada. Citizenship and Human Rights Program

    Women's Health Journal. 2003 Apr-Jun; (2):19-21.

    International trafficking of women for sexual exploitation is reaching alarming proportions, particularly in Latin America. The sexual trade of women constitutes a human rights concern which reveals the gross inequality between the sexes and the subordination of women on a global scale. An estimated four million people are victims worldwide of this illegal industry that generates US$7 billion dollars annually. The significant number of women from Latin America and the Caribbean who are engaged in prostitution in Europe, Japan and the United States strongly suggests the existence of trafficking for sexual exploitation. An estimated 50,000 women from the Dominican Republic, 75,000 from Brazil and 35,000 from Colombia work in prostitution in other parts of the world, and a large percentage of those women have been victims of trafficking at the hands of international criminal networks whose strategies are very similar to those of drug and weapons traffickers. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    185685

    Child rights abuse in Nigeria.

    Violence Watch. 2002 Oct-Nov; 4(4):1, 4.

    Children remain the instruments of positive change and development. According to Javier Peres du Cuellar former Secretary General of the United Nations, “the way a society treats children reflects not only its qualities of compassion and protective caring, but also its sense of injustice, its commitment to the future and its urge to enhance the human condition for coming generations.” Thus, the recent rejection of the Child Rights Bill by the Federal House of Representatives, is not only worrisome in that it is an outright denial of the existence abuse and exploitation in Nigeria, but also an irony it is happening in a democracy. It is indicative of the level of our development/growth as a nation in promoting the rights of disadvantaged groups. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    184832

    Angola. Struggling through peace: return and resettlement in Angola.

    Marques N

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Aug. [4], 29 p. (Angola Vol. 15, No. 16(A))

    This short report is based on an investigation by Human Rights Watch conducted in March and April 2003. Our researchers interviewed over fifty internally displaced persons, refugees, and former combatants in the transit centers and the camps of Bengo, Bengo II and Kituma in the province of Uíge and Cazombo in the province of Moxico. Human Rights Watch researchers conducted twenty-one interviews with concerned U.N. agencies, NGOs and other organizations, including the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the U.N. Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), Oxfam-GB, GOAL, African Humanitarian Aid (AHA), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-Spain, MSF-Belgium, Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), Lutheran World Federation (LWF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Trocaire, Associação Justiça, Paz e Democracia (AJPD), Liga da Mulher Angolana (LIMA) and Mulheres, Paz e Desenvolvimento. Human Rights Watch researchers also interviewed Angolan central government officials and police, and conducted six interviews with local Angolan authorities in three provinces. Where necessary, the names of those interviewed are withheld or changed in this short report to protect their confidentiality. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    184839

    Croatia. Broken promises: impediments to refugee return to Croatia.

    Ivanisevic B

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))

    Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
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  24. 24
    181166

    End child labour. Background information.

    EarthAction

    Santiago, Chile, EarthAction, [2003]. [4] p.

    In their Handbook for Parliamentarians, the International Labour Organisation and the International Parliamentary Union define child labour as "work, that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; by obliging them to leave school prematurely; or by requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work." In its most extreme forms, it involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the million streets of large cities – all of this at a very early age. Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), an international treaty ratified by 191 countries, states that every child has the right to be "...protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development." This clear, unambiguous language protects all children (anyone 17 or younger) from all forms of child labour throughout the world. It's important to note that the term “child labour" does not refer simply to any work performed by a child, but specifically to work done by a child that is considered detrimental to their growth and violates their rights. A child could attend school and still be able to work with their family part time to help grow food or learn a skill, activities which wouldn't be considered harmful. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    181165

    Parliamentary alert. End child labour.

    EarthAction

    Santiago, Chile, EarthAction, 2003. [2] p.

    Child labour refers to work that is dangerous or harmful to a child's health and development. Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children work as child labourers. Child labour is found everywhere, but especially in developing countries where it is part of the cycle of poverty, Bonded labour, virtual slavery chained by constant family debt, is common in South Asia. Child servants are hidden and abused in the homes of the rich in Latin America. Millions of children work long hours on plantations in Africa, or in factories throughout the world. Child labourers lose their health, their lives, and at the very least, their precious childhood meant for playing, making friends and learning. (author's)
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