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Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006. 58 p. (ED-2006/WS/29)Often, when dealing with materials on HIV and AIDS, one is faced with issues of sensitive content and/or references to vulnerable or marginalised communities. As a standard-setting organization, UNESCO must take special care to avoid the perpetuation of stigma and discrimination often faced by People Living with HIV (PLHIV), sex workers, men having sex with men, and other communities/groups. Moreover, the purpose of many materials is often to sensitise on issues related to HIV and AIDS. Thus, the power of language could not be more strongly emphasised. The following Guidelines on the preferred/ proper use of language were developed in an effort to respond to UNESCO's mission and work on HIV and AIDS-related issues. In general, they are intended to provide guidance towards using uniform, correct, gender-sensitive, non-discriminatory and culturally-appropriate language that promotes universal human rights. It is important to highlight that these Guidelines were produced only to assist in the development, revision and editing of HIV and AIDS-related materials. They are not intended to be used as a fixed and rigid set of rules. This document is targeted at UNESCO staff members and/or other individuals familiar with HIV- and AIDS-related issues. The Guidelines were initially conceptualised by UNESCO's Culture Sector and the current version was developed following a UNESCO-wide in-house consultation and consultations with all UN agencies. The build on the invaluable work of many organizations involved in the global response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], UNDP, HIV and Development Programme, 1992.  p.This paper presents the principles adopted by the UN Development Programme to guide its HIV-related language. It states that the appropriate use of language respects the dignity and rights of all concerned, avoids contributing to the stigmatization and rejection of the affected and assists in creating the social changes required to overcome the epidemic.
New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
Development. 1994; (1):6-9.The "rape of nature" is language out of context that does not serve the interests of the oppressed. The act of oppression can be gauged in terms of successful outcomes. The outcomes can be assessed in a variety of ways. Modernity can be taken as an "attitude that makes fair gain of any vulnerable group." The guiding principles can be confused with the manifestations of modernity. Modernity is taken within population, development, and gender discussions to justify itself. Blame for disfunction is diffused by blaming nonmodernity (for instance, the Nazis or the American slave owners, or the ignorant farmer or landholder, ancient patriarchal customs, male domination, religion, lack of modern knowledge). The solution to problems is modernity. Prior violence and oppression are used to justify continued violence and oppression. Population growth only becomes a problem when man as individual or collective entity loses the sense of the limits of nature. The environment is being destroyed by man's knowledge and the breakdown of barriers between man and nature. Modernity has brought with it political violence, intolerance, genocide, ethnic cleansing, terrorization of whole societies, the epidemic of civil wars, and the persecution of minorities and other unwanted people. Humanity speaks in an impersonal voice; the alternative is to talk about technical things in a personal and embodied way. Rape is an apt description of modernity literally and metaphorically. Feminists demand the spoken language of women. Violence is the silencing of voices. Modernity has seen an increase in the violence towards nature, individuals, bodies, and communities. Knowledge is related to the privilege of an impersonal and objective attitude toward people or nature that predisposes violence. The thought is that superior knowledge will dominate nature. Vulnerable groups everywhere are armed to prevent the "never again" will we be the objects of violence. The use of rape in this context has the danger of potentially becoming an impersonal objectification. The alternative for sustainable development is to accept vulnerability and place ourselves in others' trust, which requires subjectivity, dialogue, and empowerment and local, national, and global governance to obstruct local tyrannies. Reciprocity of interests must prevail.
ZOOM: a generic personal computer-based teaching program for public health and its application in schistosomiasis control.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1991; 69(6):699-706.In 1989, staff at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland developed teaching software that can be used on IBM-PC and IBM-compatible computers to train public health workers in schistosomiasis. They tested in several schools of public health. They then improve it by incorporating a schistosomiasis information file (stack) in ASCII file format and a routine to organize and present data. The program allows the addition of other stacks without abandoning the user interface and the instructor can change data in the stacks as needed. In fact, any text editor such as Word-Perfect can create a stack. This software teaching program (ZOOM) organizes and presents the information (Dr. Schisto). Dr. Schisto is divided into 8 chapters: introduction, epidemiology, parasitology, diagnostics, treatment, data analysis, primary health care, and global database. Users can command ZOOM to communicate in either English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. Basic hardware requirements include MS-DOS, 8086 microprocessor, 512 Kbytes RAM, CGA or MGA screen, and 2 floppy disc drives. ZOOM can also configured itself to adapt to the hardware available. ZOOM and Dr. Schisto are public domain software and thus be copied and distributed to others. Each information stack has chapters each of which contains slides, subslides, text, graphics, and dBASE, Lotus or EpiInfo files. ZOOM has key words and an index file to access more information. It also can do user defined searches using Boolean logic. Since ZOOM can be used with any properly formatted data, it has the potential to become the standard for global information exchange and for computer assisted teaching purposes.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Jul; 1-8.The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1986 Aug; 1-8.The Philippines is an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets, 11 of which compose about 95% of the total area and population. The majority of the Filipinos are descendants of Indonesians and Malays. Approximately 90% of the population are Christian with the majority of the remaining 10% being Moslems. In the 1960s, the annual population growth rate was roughly 3%, but it fell to 2.4% in the late 1970s and was still 2.4% in 1985. In 1970, President Marcos implemented an official family planning policy to reduce the high growth rate and thereby stimulate economic development. A population commission coordinates family planning efforts. Both the Spanish (1521-1898) and the United States (1898-1946) have ruled the Philippines with a brief occupation by the Japanese (1942-1945). The US assisted in the reconstruction of the economy following World War II and continues to maintain and operate military bases. Further, from 1946-1986, the Philippines has received >$3.7 billion in economic and military assistance from the US. The government operated under a constitutional democracy from 1946-1972, but in 1972 President Marcos declared martial law. In 1981, martial law ended and Marcos called for a presidential election. After winning the election, he called for an amendment of the 1972 constitution making him, rather than the prime minister, the head of government. Even though martial law ended in 1981, the Marcos government retained its wide powers to arrest and detain anyone. In February 1986, popular support backed by a peaceful civilian-military uprising brought Corazon Aquino to the Presidency. In the mid 1980s a severe economic recession hit the Philippines with the real GNP growth rate ranging from -5.3%-0%. The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the south east Asian nations, many East Bloc nations, the US, China, Cuba, and the Soviet Union.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-8.Yugoslavia lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea opposite Italy. The South Slav groups and 17 minority groups joined in 1918 to form this nation with the greatest ethnic and religious diversity in Eastern Europe. In 1948, due to displeasure with Yugoslav leader's, Tito, insistence on independence, Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from Cominform. The US and its Western allies therefore contributed economic and military assistance to help Yugoslavia remain independent. The federal government consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Yugoslavia continues to follow a pragmatic Marxist policy, unlike other Marxist countries. For example, certain basic rights are recognized and protected, citizens may travel abroad freely, churches are open, and private property rights are respected, e.g. 84% of all farmland is privately owned. This moderated policy also guides the nation to establish friendly relations with most countries, regardless of sociopolitical systems. Even though only political party is allowed to operate, the League of Communists, it permits open expressions of differences on some major policy issues, unlike the Soviet style 1 party system of the recent past. In the 1950s, Yugoslavia switched from a highly centralized economic system to a decentralized, more market oriented system. In addition, during the mid 1960s, the federal government handed economic and political authority over to the 6 republics and 2 autonomous provinces. Rapid inflation, significant unemployment, and severe balance-of-payment and debt pressures plague the nation, however. Yugoslavia tries to maintain a balance in trade relations with Western nations, the socialist bloc, and with developing countries. The US is Yugoslavia's 4th leading trading partner. US policy on Yugoslavia is based on strong and continuing support for Yugoslavia's independence, unity, and territorial integrity and respect for Yugoslavia's nonalignment.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-4.Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-7.Indonesia, an archipelago of > 13,500 islands, ranks 5th as the most populous nation in the world. It has 175 million people, 105 million of which live on the island of Java alone. Indonesia has many distinct cultural and linguistic groups. Islam almost wholly replaced Hindu by the end of the 16th century, after arriving in the 12th century. Today 88% of the people are Muslim, while the rest includes Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, and others. The constitution guarantees religious freedom. Indonesia gained independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Indonesia's 1st president, Sukarno, led the rebellion leading to independence and remained in power from 1949-1967. After aligning with Asian communist countries and establishing an authoritarian regime in the early 1960s, the people rebelled, attempted a coup and, in 1967, the People's,s Consultative Assembly named Soeharto as president. He continues to be Indonesia's president and the dominant government and political figure. The constitution provides limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. During the 1970s, the strong economy was based on high oil revenues and an industrial policy which protected domestic industries. Beginning in the 1980s, however, lower energy earnings assisted by low inflation, a downward float against the dollar, and the government eliminating regulatory obstacles turned the economic tide. Even though Indonesia has a larger unrescheduled external debt than any other developing nation, the government is dealing successfully with servicing this debt. Foreign interests participate in the oil and minerals sectors. Indonesia acts on its free and active foreign policy by playing a prominent role in Asian affairs, but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesia is on friendly terms with its neighbors, and the military does not advocate developing the capability to project its power. The US and Indonesia carry on cordial diplomatic and trade relations. Additionally, the US provides economic and some military assistance to Indonesia.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Feb; 1-11.Japan consists of > 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-7.Trinidad and Tobago lie at the southernmost end of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea. The population of the country mainly includes people of African and East Indian origin, all of whom speak English. Columbus visited Trinidad in 1498. Spain colonized the island in 1592 and ruled it until the British captured it in 1797. Tobago has been ruled by Holland, France, and England. In 1888, the 2 islands formed a single colony. In 1962, 1 year after the collapse of the autonomous Federation of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago gained full independence and joined the Commonwealth. IN 1976, the nation adopted a constitution establishing a republican government with a president as chief of state, a cabinet who exercises general direction and control of the government, and a prime minister who leads the cabinet and who is responsible to the bicameral parliament. The judicial authority lies with the Court of Appeal. The People's National Movement emerged in 1956 under Dr. Williams and remained in power from independence until 5 years after the death of Prime Minister Williams in 1981. Elected in 1986, A.N.R. Robinson of the National Alliance for Reconstruction is the Prime Minister. Petroleum products provide the basis for the nation's economy. This 2 island nation ranked 3rd highest per capita income in the Western Hemisphere in the early 1980s due to the 1974-1982 petroleum boom. Since 1982, however, the economy has been in a recession. The country maintains its most extensive ties with its Caribbean neighbors and major North American and European trading partners. It is a key member of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and also a member of the UN and the Organization of American States. Trinidad and Tobago continue cordial diplomatic relations with the United States.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Jul; 1-7.Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.
IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1988 Apr; 22(2):3-4.A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.
[Unpublished] 1987. 13,  p.Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Apr; 1-7.The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and support to supplement Korea's efforts to deter aggression. The US also believes that talks between governments are essential if reunification will ultimately occur. South Korea is now the US' largest commercial partner and Korea seems to understand that they can benefit greatly by having increased US private sector involvement in Korea's development.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1986. v, 421, v, 360 p.The WORLD BANK GLOSSARY contains not only financial and economic terminology and terms relating to the Bank's procedures and practices, but also terms that occur frequently in Bank documents. Terms in such diverse fields as agriculture, education, energy, housing, law, technology, and transportation--all fields related to economic development--have been assembled here for ease of reference. The glossary is intended to serve the Bank's translators and interpreters. Volume I contains English-French and French-English terms; volume II includes English-Spanish and Spanish-English terms. Both volumes contain a list of acronyms occurring frequently in Bank texts and a list of international, regional, and national organizations. The glossary does not define terms.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Nov; 1-4.Fiji is a group of volcanic islands located in the South Pacific. Because of the rough terrain in its center, that area is sparsely populated; most of Fiji's population live on the island coasts. Almost all indigenous Fijians are Christians and English is the official language. In 1970 Fiji became a fully sovereign and independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The British monarch appoints the governor general who in turn appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in House of Representatives. The transition to independence for Fijians was achieved in a peaceful fashion. While there are some racial tensions between the Indo-Fijians and the indigenous Fijians, the 2 major political parties and the various leaders have succeeded in maintaining order. The government of Fiji, since attaining independence, has worked hard toward economic and social progress and there have been great strides made in education, health, agriculture, and nutrition. The thrust of Fiji's economy is sugar and the 2nd component is tourism. Fiji does import a wide variety of goods but industrial development is proceeding well. Fiji encourages local and foreign investment in the hopes of promoting development and providing industrial jobs. Regional cooperation is the main element in Fiji foreign policy they joined the UN in 1970. Full diplomatic relations exist between the US and Fiji and US and Fijian officials have exchanged visits. In 1985 the US provided $1.5 million in disaster relief funds to Fiji; there is expedcted to be a bilateral aid agreement between the 2 countries in 1986. Travel notes, government and US officials, and further information are included.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Oct; 1-8.Yugoslavia was formed on December 1, 1918 from the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro plus parts of the Turkish and Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its population has the greatest ethnic and religious deversity of any in Eastern Europe. The main language is Serbo-Croatian. Yugoslavia has worked hard to maintain its independence despite pressure from the international Communist organization Cominform. Since the 1960s they have been identified as a leader of nonaligned nations. 6 republics comprise the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and each of these republics has its own government modeled on the federal structure. The federal government has executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of all laws and regulations. The League of Communists is the only political party allowed to function; however, it does permit open expression of differences on some major policy issues. Since the end of World War 2, the Yugoslav economy has become an industrialized, midlevel technological economy and the standard of living has risen. Yugoslavia has tried to maintain a rough balance in trade relations with Western nations, with the socialist bloc, and with the developing world. Agricultural production has risen steadily over the years but its full poteential has not yet been realized. Yugoslavia has tried to establish friendly relations with most states, especially in Western Europe. The US has made an effort to support Yugoslavia in its attempt to maintain independence and through cultural, commercial, and political involvement has attempted to offer alternatives to being dependent on the Soviet Union. Relations have been further strengthened by continuing high-level visits by heads of state. While there are differences of view on many foreign policy issues, the US has respected Yugoslavia's position and has offered continued support.
In: Methods of intercultural communications research, edited by William B. Gudykunst [and] Young Yun Kim. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1984. 185-94. (International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Vol. VIII)This chapter weds the traditions of rhetorical analysis to those of content analysis in the study of international organization pronouncements, that is, it relates a research perspective, explores possible extensions of that perspective, applies that perspective to intercultural communication, and critiques that application. Like Kenneth Burke, the author finds strength in paradoxes. Content analysis translates frequency of occurrence of certain symbols into summary judgments and comparisons of content of the discourse. By marking off units of time or space, it tallies the nature and types of symbols or classes of symbols per unit, prior to estimating or extrapolating the results to spaces or periods not directly observed. The concerns of the content analyst focus on the choice of a unit, the development and clear description of categories of symbols or themes to be quantified, the assurance that coders will intersubjectively agree on assignment of symbols to categories, and the ascertainment of direction for the materials counted. Content analysis is a means of counting and judging some matter based upon statistical central tendencies, yet the question remains as to which features of meaning are quantifiable. The suspicion that, more often than not, things of greater importance will be stated ina communique in direct proportion to their importance, is countered many times in cultural practice. Cultural indirection, ritual, cultural hierarchy, cultural "non sequiturs," or like variables weaken the tie between quantity and quality. Rhetoricians and humanists tend to be concerned with quality of communicative acts more than quantity. Kenneth Burke is an exception to this rule. He argues in "Philosophy of Literary Form" the need for measures of central tendency to disclose important concepts on the mind of a communicator. This analysis is extended from the study of a writer to a speaker, from a speaker to a set of speakers who face the same stimulus, to the definition of an outlook for an international organization, to the application of that organizational outlook to take to task a disrespectful member state. The progression, pairing, or contrasting of terms by a speaker disclose the "cornerstone terms" of the speaker's motivation. Presumably, the calculation of cornerstone points for persons suggests such points for groups or organizations of affiliation by that person; and the comparison of such points between groups and organizations will disclose the calculus for entire cultures. As Burke's symbolic analysis technique effectively discloses motivations ("factors") of the communicator, this holds out the hope that the tenets of a given culture could be disclosed through the analysis of cultural materials.
Icmc Migration News. 1981 Jan-Mar; 30(1):3-12.Add to my documents.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1981; 19(1/2):225-240.Add to my documents.
[Indications for the education of children of permanent migrants, with particular reference to language] Indicazioni per un'educazione dei figli dei migranti permanenti, con particolare riferimento alle lingue.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):77-90.Add to my documents.
[Policies of European countries concerning the education of immigrant children] La politica dei paesi europei in materia di formazione scolastica dei figli degli emigrati.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):44-60.Add to my documents.
A systematic approach to planning the appropriate technology for primary child care: a necessary step toward realizing Alma-Ata.
In: American University of Beirut. Faculty of Health Sciences. Human resources for primary health care in the Middle East. Beirut, Lebanon, American University of Beirut, 1980. 128-39.Focusing on the essential technologies for the clinical aspect of primary health care (PHC), this discussion argues that it is possible to define them. If PHC is ever to achieve an acceptable standard, these technologies must be available in the languages of all the world's health workers in a systematic form. This objective is both concrete and practicable. A great need exists for appropriate knowledge, and there is an even greater "application gap" in which technologies of proven value are not even known to the people who might use them. There are 2 essential preliminary steps, both of which are largely attainable: to organize the technologies systematically in at least 1 language and to keep the system currently under review so that it is always up to date; and to keep a careful watch on what is available in the languages of the world's health workers and to try to fill as many as possible of the gaps, either by encouraging original writing or by translation. With minor exceptions, the essential technologies for PHC are universally applicable. About 90% of the technologies for primary care are applicable everywhere. PHC is so complex that 2 initial simplifications are required: the level of the worker to be addressed; and to isolate appropriate technology, which is mostly applicable worldwide, from matters of culture and administration, which are highly specific locally. The ultimate objective is for an appropriate technology to be adopted and applied to heal the sick. Technologies can be promoted in at least 6 ways: the appropriate technology must be carefully and completely described step by step; the description of the appropriate technology must be accompanied by sufficient theory to make the necessary action seem reasonable to the workers; the necessary equipment must appear in a government medical store's list and in the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) list; the technology must be accompanied by the necessary evaluation procedures; a group of technologies must be accompanied by its appropriate management targets; and the appropriate technologies must be accompanied by the necessary teaching aids. There are important links between technologies; they mutually support each other. Not only does 1 technology support another, but the various different ways of promoting the same technology support one another. Currently, the emphasis is rightly on providing everyone with access to at least some health care, but the need to measure and increase the quality of that care is already being felt. It is a formidable task to plan these detailed systems of technologies for primary care. The World Health Organization (WHO) could do it by mobilizing the necessary talent globally. Also, WHO, assisted by the bilateral agencies, has the power to define the essential technologies for PHC, to systematize them anonymously, and to encourage its member states to make sure they are available in the languages of all the world's health workers.