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In: Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF, Sai FT, Senanayake P, eds. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 7-9.The principal objective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) -- an international federation of 95 voluntary national family planning associations with operations in 110 countries -- is to enable people to practice responsible parenthood as a matter of human right, family welfare, and the well-being of the community. A second IPPF objective is to increase understanding on the part of people and governments of the demographic problems existing in their communities and the world. In the area of lactation the IPPF has had several activities in the past few years. 1 activity was a Biological Sciences Workshop on Lactation and Contraception in November 1976. A 2nd activity is a study on breastfeeding being conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The Central Medical Committee of the IPPF passed a resolution early in 1976 which states that lactation is a good thing in itself, that breastfeeding is the best way of feeding an infant in the early months, if not the early years of its life, and that breastfeeding is a good contraceptive in its own right. A definite advantage of breastfeeding is that there is more avoidance of pregnancy and more protection of women from unwanted pregnancy by breastfeeding than by all combined scientific technology in family planning based programs. Some of the problems of breastfeeding and outside work relate to sheer expense, both in a positive and negative sense. There is also the question of inconvenience of breastfeeding. 1 approach to the disadvantages has been prolonged maternity leave with pay. Another approach is causing the child to invert its feeding rhythm.
In: Raphael, D., ed. Breastfeeding and food policy in a hungry world. New York, Academic Press, 1979. p. 245-251The World Health Organization has undertaken an extensive survey of breastfeeding practises in an attempt to analyze prevalence, duration, motivation, attitude and demography of lactating mothers. A point prevalence study was implemented in 1975 in 10 locations. Mothers from 3 groups: urban elite, urban, and rural, were interviewed concerning background, medical history, pregnancy conditions, postnatal infant care, feeding schedules and diet, return of menstruation, and family planning behavior. 5 additional surveys were conducted among approximately 20,000 women. The first was a health, demographic, and socioeconomic survey. The second was an assessment of infant food marketing practises. The third survey was of health-related workers regarding their knowledge and training. The organization and delivery of health services and the social support systems for lactating mothers comprised the fourth and fifth surveys. Following these surveys WHO also conducted a cross-sectional study of the volume and composition of breast milk. The results of the studies will be input for an action program.
In: Raphael, D., ed. Breastfeeding and food policy in a hungry world. New York, Academic Press, 1979. p. 253-258UNICEF has promoted breastfeeding in developing countries through health service innovations such as nutrition rehabilitation centers and under 5s clinics. UNICEF has also helped establish departments of social pediatrics and sponsored special training programs for pediatricians in developing countries. It helped put 240 milk plants in operation in 40 countries. Skim milk powder has been distributed in the largest quantity in food-aid programs. Other milk substitutes include immature coconut milk, soy milk, whole milk powder, cheese, and butter oil. Some cases of severe malnutrition do not respond to milk unless the lactose is replaced with sucrose, some protein and fat. K-MIX-II has been distributed since 1970 and consists of skim milk powder, calcium caseinate, and sugar. Fat and water are added at the point of consumption.