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In: Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF, Sai FT, Senanayake P, eds. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 7-9.The principal objective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) -- an international federation of 95 voluntary national family planning associations with operations in 110 countries -- is to enable people to practice responsible parenthood as a matter of human right, family welfare, and the well-being of the community. A second IPPF objective is to increase understanding on the part of people and governments of the demographic problems existing in their communities and the world. In the area of lactation the IPPF has had several activities in the past few years. 1 activity was a Biological Sciences Workshop on Lactation and Contraception in November 1976. A 2nd activity is a study on breastfeeding being conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The Central Medical Committee of the IPPF passed a resolution early in 1976 which states that lactation is a good thing in itself, that breastfeeding is the best way of feeding an infant in the early months, if not the early years of its life, and that breastfeeding is a good contraceptive in its own right. A definite advantage of breastfeeding is that there is more avoidance of pregnancy and more protection of women from unwanted pregnancy by breastfeeding than by all combined scientific technology in family planning based programs. Some of the problems of breastfeeding and outside work relate to sheer expense, both in a positive and negative sense. There is also the question of inconvenience of breastfeeding. 1 approach to the disadvantages has been prolonged maternity leave with pay. Another approach is causing the child to invert its feeding rhythm.