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  1. 1

    Implications of lactational amenorrhea for policy: IPPF.

    Huezo C

    In: Bellagio and beyond: breastfeeding and LAM in reproductive health. End of project conference of the Breastfeeding and MCH Division, Institute for Reproductive Health, a WHO Collaborating Center on Breastfeeding, May 13-16, 1997. Conference summary and papers, edited by Kristin A. Cooney, Sheerin R. Nahmias. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, Institute for Reproductive Health], 1997. [3] p.. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. DPE-3061-A-00-1029-00)

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is a worldwide federation of indigenous autonomous family planning associations which develops policies and guidelines to guide the work of the federation and its affiliates. IPPF has for many years adopted and advocated a health rationale for family planning which states that child spacing is important for infant and child health and survival, as well as for maternal health. Breastfeeding has a major role in child spacing. Since the 1980s, the IPPF has been part of the safe motherhood initiative which emphasizes the importance of women's education and care before, during, and after pregnancy. That initiative clearly involves education and care during breastfeeding. The IPPF focuses its policies and activities regarding the contraceptive effect of lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) in the context of the other benefits of breastfeeding. The IPPF International Medical Advisory Panel's policy statement describes breastfeeding as an important part of the human reproductive process which must be seen from the perspectives of the child, the woman, and the family. That means that breastfeeding should be promoted because of the known benefits it provides in infant nutrition and health, as well as for the benefits it promotes to the mother and its role in fertility regulation.
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  2. 2

    The Interagency Group for Action on Breastfeeding: donor to donor cooperation for policy enhancement.

    Kyenkya-Isabirye M

    In: Breastfeeding policy: the role of U.S.-based international organizations. Report of a panel presentation at the NCIH Annual Meeting, June, 1989, edited by John T. Queenan, Miriam H. Labbok, and Katherine Krasovec. Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1990 May. 22-5. (Institute Issues Report No. 5)

    Indicative of increased interest in breast feeding promotion on the part of the international donor community, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) co-sponsored the first meeting of the Interagency Group for Action on Breast Feeding. This 1987 gathering was followed by an interagency needs assessment, establishment by WHO of an international data bank, and identification of successful breast feeding promotion programs. The long-term goal, however, is to influence high-level policy makers to support the goal of empowering all women to exclusively breast feed for 4-6 months and continue supplemented breast feeding well into the second year of life. One of the most effective ways to promote support of breast feeding is to convince governments that this practice decreases the incidence of diarrheal and respiratory disease and increases child spacing, thereby reducing infant mortality. A review of the efforts of selected countries to reverse declining trends of breast feeding initiation and duration is underway, and health care worker training programs are being developed. Two WHO-UNICEF publications--a Joint Statement on the role of health services and "Ten Steps to Successful Breast Feeding"--are facilitating implementation of breast feeding promotion activities.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Breast-feeding and child-spacing: importance of information collection for public health policy.

    Saadeh R; Benbouzid D


    Lactational amenorrhea in many developing countries is still the most successful form of contraception, especially when modern forms of contraception are not available. In cultures where frequent or prolonged breast feeding is common, postpartum amenorrhea and suppressed ovulation are frequent and serve to space births. It is this spacing of births that leads to decreased infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. It must be remembered that lactational amenorrhea is not a completely reliable form of contraception. In fact the figures indicate that in cultures were family planning use is low, birth intervals are largely determined by the duration and intensity of breastfeeding. Studies indicate that an increase of 15% 32% in birth intervals can result from prolonged lactation. It would be to the advantage of health care planners and providers to examined more closely the causes and properties of lactational amenorrhea. Field directed education can provide women with the information necessary to help them control their child spacing. The WHO Breast-feeding Data Bank collects and analyzes information on breast-feeding and its effects on fertility regulation. Methods used to assess lactational infertility and how the information is used by the data bank are described in this article. There is a summary of relevant information gathered from published sources and post 1983 studies of the WHO. The practical implications to health policy that are associated with lactation-associated infertility are also mentioned.
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  4. 4

    Stopping population growth.

    Brown LR

    In: State of the world 1985. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society [by] Lester R. Brown, Edward C. Wolf, Linda Starke, William U. Chandler, Christopher Flavin, Sandra Postel, Cynthia Pollack. New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1985. 200-21.

    The demographic contrasts of the 1980s are placing considerable stress on the international economic system and on national political structures. Runaway population growth is indirectly fueling the debt crisis by increasing the need for imported food and other basic commodities. Low fertility countries are food aid donors, and the higher fertility countries are the recipients. In most countries with high fertility, food production per person is either stagnant or declining. Population policy is becoming a priority of national governments and international development agencies. This discussion reviews what has happened since the UN's first World Population Conference in 1974 in Bucharest, fertility trends and projections, social influences on fertility, advances in contraceptive technology, and 2 major family planning gaps -- the gap between the demand for family planning services and their availability and the gap between the societal need to slow population growth quickly and the private interests of couples in doing so. The official purpose of the 1984 UN International Conference on Population convened in Mexico City, in which 149 countries participated, was to review the world population plan of action adopted at Bucharest. In Bucharest there had been a wide political schism between the representatives of industrial countries, who pushed for an increase in 3rd world family planning efforts, and those from developing countries, whose leaders argued that social and economic progress was the key to slowing population growth. In Mexico City this division had virtually disappeared. Many things had happened since Bucharest to foster the attitude change. The costly consequences of continuing rapid population growth that had seemed so theoretical in the 1974 debate were becoming increasingly real for many. World population in 1984 totaled 4.76 billion, an increase of some 81 million in 1 year. The population projections for the industrial countries and East Asia seem reasonable enough in terms of what local resource and life support systems can sustain, but those for much of the rest of the world do not. Most demographers are still projecting that world population will continue growing until it reaches some 10 billion, but that most of the 5.3 billion additional people will be concentrated in a few regions, principally the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. What demographers are projecting does not mesh with what ecologists or agronomists are reporting. In too many countries ecological deterioration is translating into economic decline which in turn leads to social disintegration. The social indicator that correlates most closely with declining fertility across the whole range of development is the education of women. Worldwide, sterilization protects more couples from unwanted pregnancy than any other practice. Oral contraceptives rank second. The rapid growth now confronting the world community argues for effective family planning programs.
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