Your search found 33 Results

  1. 1
    374608

    Women’s labour migration: an overview from Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)

    UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
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  2. 2
    339662

    Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 1: Understanding child trafficking.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour; UNICEF; United Nations. Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 51 p.

    This training manual is aimed at governments, workers, employer's groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies working for children. It can be used in a training environment and as a stand-alone resource for those who wish to hone their understanding and skills in efforts to end child trafficking.
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  3. 3
    325697

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)

    In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    320929

    Labour migration in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: current issues and next political steps.

    Patzwaldt K

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2004 Jun 1. 16 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2004/MC/3)

    With the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families having entered into force on July 1, 2003, the UNESCO Central and East European Network on Migration Research (CEENOM) has got both a new focus on migrant workers and a new instrument for policy recommendations to national governments. The aim of the present research and analysis is therefore to identify, which obstacles impede the accession of Eastern European and Central Asian countries to the convention and how these could be overcome. Additionally, debate on the provisions of the convention highlights the need for protection of migrant workers and stimulates the search for feasible solutions to labour migration related problems. Finally, it strengthens the link between Central and Eastern European research institutes and policy-makers involved by concentrating on the role and consequences of this distinct legal instrument. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    320246

    Keep your head down: Unprotected migrants in South Africa.

    Kriger N

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))

    South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    314256

    Reflections on initiatives to address human trafficking.

    Pattanaik B

    Forced Migration Review. 2006 May; (25):[2] p..

    For many, including authors of some of the articles which follow in this issue of FMR, anti-trafficking activities should prioritise strengthening the criminal justice response and enabling those affected to testify against those who have exploited them. Some in the anti-trafficking community focus only on trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation and naively believe that criminalisation of prostitution would end trafficking. Those who focus on repatriation of trafficked persons or who 'rescue' them from brothels or other workplaces often fail to ask 'victims' whether they want to be stopped from working and sent home - or would prefer to remain if they could find legal, paid employment. It has recently become fashionable for researchers and activists to address the 'demand' side of trafficking. However, once again, a conflation between 'demand for paid sex' and 'demand for the labour/services of a trafficked person' is seen in many of these studies. If it is not clearly conceptualised, 'demand' can be an extremely problematic term. The pioneering work of Bridget Anderson and Julia O'Connell-Davidson, and the recent work of the International Labour Organisation on demand, are valuable resources for anyone conducting research or developing programmes on demand. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    282394

    North-South conflicts and their management.

    Ranis G

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Jan. 34 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 746)

    This paper accepts the premise that positive sum games exist in all dimensions of North-South economic contacts but that the management of conflicts concerning the distribution of the gains requires careful attention. It then proceeds to analyze the current state of play and the character of these conflicts in each of the main arenas, focussing heavily on trade, but also discussing public and private capital movements, technology transfer and intellectual property rights issues and labor mobility. It concludes with a discussion of possible changes in international institutions and governance. (author's)
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  8. 8
    292284
    Peer Reviewed

    A review of recent OAS research on human trafficking in the Latin American and Caribbean region. [Reseña de investigaciones recientes de la OEA sobre tráfico de seres humanos en América Latina y el Caribe]

    Langberg L

    International Migration. 2005 Jan; 43(1-2):129-139.

    No review of research on human trafficking worldwide would be complete without an examination of the situation in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the past few years, the Latin American and Caribbean regions have witnessed increased activities by the US Government, international organizations, and civil society alerting governments and migrants on the continually evolving nature of human trafficking, both domestically and across international boundaries. Effective policy responses to the scourge of human trafficking require reliable data based on solid empirical research. The clandestine nature of this criminal activity makes it only possible to rely on estimates, primarily from the nongovernmental organization (NGO) community. As in most parts of the world, before the year 2000 the problem had been overlooked and understudied in Latin America and the Caribbean. In an effort to ameliorate this problem and provide governments information that more fully addressed the scope and nature of the problem, the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) and the Inter- American Children’s Institute (IACI), both of the Organization of American States (OAS), collaborated with the International Human Rights Law Institute (IHRLI) of DePaul University to study human trafficking in Latin America and the Caribbean. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    289823

    International migration.

    Population Index. 1948 Apr; 14(2):97-104.

    Research in migration has been peculiarly susceptible to the changing problems of the areas and the periods in which demographers work. American studies of international movements diminished after the passage of Exclusion Acts, and virtually ceased as immigration dwindled during the depression years. On the other hand, surveys of internal migration proliferated as the facts of mass unemployment and the social approaches of the New Deal focused governmental attention on the relation of people to resources and to economic opportunity. Geographers and historians took over the field the demographers had vacated. The studies of pioneer settlement directed by Isaiah Bowman and those of Marcus Hansen dealing with the Atlantic crossing are outstanding illustrations of this non-demographic research on essentially demographic problems. Even when demographers investigated international movements they served principally as quantitative analysts of historical exchanges. This is not to disparage such studies as that of Truesdell on the Canadian in the United States, or of Coates on the United States immigrant in Canada, but merely to emphasize the point that Americans regarded international migration as an issue of the past. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    276986
    Peer Reviewed

    Rights of foreign workers and the politics of migration in South-East and East Asia.

    Piper N

    International Migration. 2004; 42(5):71-97.

    The issue of cross-border migration in South-East and East Asia is linked to the integration of regional, if not global, labour markets. The types of labour that arc currently in demand have changed substantially since the 1990s in terms of (1) overall magnitude, (2) gender composition, and (3) increased diversification. This paper, however, focuses upon those workers classified as unskilled as they constitute numerically the largest and most vulnerable group. The challenges to provide adequate protection from, and prevention of, exploitative and abusive practices that seriously minimize the socio-economic benefits for these workers are linked to migration policies and the issue of rights in the origin and destination countries. This paper's objective is to provide a broad outline of the emerging trends and issues revolving around contemporary cross-border labour migration and the politics of migrants' rights in South-East and East Asia, illustrated by the difficulties experienced with the ratification of the 1990 United Nations Convention on the Rights of All Migrants and their Families (ICMR). The data this paper is based upon were collected for a report commissioned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) with fieldwork carried out in seven countries located in the Asia Pacific region. It is argued that ratification of the ICMR is obstructed by politics and by a lack of political will. A rights-based approach to the protection of migrant labour is thus related to a number of macro and micro level issues, revolving around development and practices of "good governance" in addition to interstate relations. This means that the promotion of migrants' lights requires a holistic approach addressing national and transnational issues in an era of increasing mobility across border (author's)
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  11. 11
    281152

    International migration from countries with economies in transition: 1980-1999.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2002 Sep 11. [131] p. (ESA/P/WP.176)

    The present report gives an overview of levels and trends of international migration between countries with economies in transition and countries with established market economies from 1980 to the late 1990s. It seeks to organize a large amount of empirical evidence gathered by these countries with two main objectives. First, it aims at describing the main regional features of international migration in and from the group of countries with economies in transition. The rationale for starting in the 1980s is that most of the trends observed in the 1990s have their roots and even started before the borders opened. In fact, migration has itself been cited as one of the elements leading to the political change. However, repressive migration policies unavoidably made basic migration trends very similar in all communist countries. Such similarity could not be preserved once the region liberalized. The second objective of the report is to describe similarities and differences in migration levels and trends among countries in the region during the post-communist period. Namely, are all countries in the region net sending countries? How has international migration affected population growth? What are the main countries of origin and destination? (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    281151

    International migration and development. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2002. 18 p. (A/58/98)

    Pursuant to General Assembly resolution A/RES/56/203 of 21 February 2002, the present report summarizes activities relating to international migration and development that have been carried out by relevant organizations within and outside the United Nations system, taking into account the lessons learned as well as best practices on migration management and policies. The report also discusses the actual and potential mechanisms within the United Nations system to address the issues related to international migration and development, including the possibility of the convening of a United Nations conference on international migration and development. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    281150

    International migration and development, including the question of the convening of a United Nations conference on international migration and development to address migration issues. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2001 Jul 3. 15 p. (A/56/167)

    The present report has been prepared in response to the request made by the General Assembly in resolution 54/212 of 22 December 1999. It was drafted in consultation with relevant bodies, agencies, funds and programmes of the United Nations system and other relevant intergovernmental, regional and subregional organizations in the field of migration and development. The report summarizes national policies on international migration and the views of Governments regarding the convening of a United Nations conference on international migration and development; describes recent activities carried out by the relevant organizations at the regional and international levels, taking account of the lessons on migration management and policies that they have learned through their activities; and addresses the possible mechanisms within the United Nations system to examine the issues related to international migration and development. (author's)
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  14. 14
    183476

    Hasta la vista, paradise.

    Deyal T

    Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.

    More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
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  15. 15
    182756

    Levels and trends of international migration to selected countries in Asia.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. ix, 101 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/218)

    The primary objective of the present report is to examine the levels and trends of population migration to selected countries in Asia using available statistics as a guide, and focusing primarily on changes that have occurred since 1970. The report discusses the burgeoning of labour migration during the past decades, in response to the development of strong economies in Eastern, Southeastern and Western Asia. It also touches on permanent settlement of people and refugee flows that have characterized several countries in Asia. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    182035

    Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore Cluster Country Consultation on Migrant Workers' HIV Vulnerability Reduction: Pre-Departure, Post-Arrival and Returnee Reintegration, 15-17 April 2002, Makati City, Philippines.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. South East Asia HIV and Development Programme

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNDP, South East Asia HIV and Development Programme, 2002 Sep. iv, 39 p.

    HIV/AIDS touches all sectors of society. It is an issue that requires appropriate responses at national, regional and global levels. Migrant workers are valuable resources that stimulate economic prosperity and contribute to the socio-economic development of Asia. Millions of migrant workers move in and out of the countries of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore (BIMPS) for economic and other reasons. Migrant workers, Non-Governmental Organizations, United Nations agencies and government officials responsible for migrant workers gathered from the BIMPS cluster countries to share their existing responses and to formulate collaborative actions for reducing migrant workers’ HIV vulnerabilities in this region and beyond. The delegates proposed a Memorandum of Understanding and drafted a set of collaborative responses. Only through the collective protection of valuable human resources will the BIMPS countries be able to mitigate the socio-economic and human impact of HIV/AIDS within each of their own countries. It is the hope of the UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Programme that the resulting draft Memorandum of Understanding and the Joint Action Programme from the BIMPS Consultation will be considered by the Ministries of Labour, as well as the National AIDS Authorities of these countries in their future policy and programme elaborations. It is also hoped that the ASEAN Task Force on AIDS Secretariat and its dialogue partners will provide the necessary financial and technical support to materialize the proposed Joint Action Programme for the BIMPS sub-region. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    143127

    Workers abroad.

    SPOTLIGHT. 1998 Dec; (17):1.

    As part of its role as lead agency for the UN's Working Group on International Migration, the ILO helped to organize a Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development held in The Hague in 1998. The UNFPA-funded symposium is part of a process for reviewing progress in implementing the recommendations of recent international conferences, in particular, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The symposium brought together a broad range of experts, researchers, and organizations to explore the current migration situation. Focus was given to assessing the effectiveness of policies in countries of origin and those of destination. International migration has become a global phenomenon, leaving few countries unaffected. Such migration for work is fueled by growing income disparities among countries and the slow growth of modern sector employment in many developing countries. Of concern is how to maximize the benefits of migration for all parties involved.
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  18. 18
    129918

    Trends, patterns and implications of rural-urban migration in India, Nepal and Thailand.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. xii, 243 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 138; ST/ESCAP/1572)

    This UN study presents a detailed analysis of rural-urban migration, based on results from the 1990-91 round of population censuses for Nepal, India, and Thailand. The Asia and Pacific region is urbanizing at a rapid pace. Urban growth in Nepal, India, and Thailand increased during the 1970s-1980s and declined during the 1980s-1990s. Rural-urban migration was lower during the 1980s in India and Thailand compared to the 1970s, but in Nepal the level of migration increased. There was no consistent pattern of urban concentration or deconcentration in India and Thailand, but Nepal's capital, Kathmandu, grew at a faster rate than the urban average. Some cities in India grew more rapidly during the 1980s, such as Greater Bombay, Hyderabad, Pune, Lucknow, Surat, Jaipur, and Kochi, with rates above 3.9%. Although Bangkok Metropolis declined from 61% to 58% in urban population, the five provinces bordering Bangkok grew by at least 4%. During the 1980s, Kathmandu and Pokara grew at a rate of 7.1% compared to the national average of 4.4%. Of the 7.3% of Indian total population who were migrants during 1976-81, 20% (50 million) were rural-urban migrants. Of the 8.0% (4.0 million) of Thai total population who were migrants in 1985-90, about 20% were rural-urban migrants. During 1990-91 there were 97,109 migrants among Nepal's total population (0.5%), of which 24% were rural-urban migrants. Each country prepared population projections to 2011. The proportion of female migrants increased in India. In all three countries, female migrants outnumbered male migrants for the most part. A wide variety of policy recommendations were suggested in each report. The main issue is whether decentralized industrial policies can reduce rural-urban migration. All studies needed improved data and research.
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  19. 19
    087719

    [Resolution No.] 47/96. Violence against migrant women workers [16 December 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-SEVENTH SESSION. 1993; 1:178-9.

    This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on violence against migrant women workers. The resolution notes with concern increasing reports of violence committed against women migrant workers by some of their employers in some host countries and expresses grave concern over the plight of these women. All countries are asked to cooperate to protect the rights of women migrant workers and all relevant organizations are asked to report the extent of the problem to the Secretary-General and to recommend measures to protect these women.
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  20. 20
    087641

    [Resolution No.] 48/110. Violence against women migrant workers [20 December 1993].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:225-6.

    On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution concerning the plight of women migrant workers. The resolution opens by recalling relevant principles adopted by the UN and by the World Conference on Human Rights relating to the elimination of gender-based violence and all forms of sexual harassment and exploitation and to human rights and equal rights of men and women. The resolution notes that women from developing countries are increasingly forced to seek employment in more affluent countries. In these cases, the sending countries have a duty to protect the interests of their citizens and the receiving countries have a duty to protect the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all persons within their borders (especially those, such as migrant women laborers, who are in vulnerable positions). The resolution expresses concern for women migrant workers who are victimized by their employers and calls upon the international community to protect the rights of women migrant workers and to consider adopting the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Trade unions are asked to assist women migrant workers in self-organization, and treaty-monitoring bodies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and UN agencies are asked to report to the UN on the situation of women migrant workers and to include recommended actions to improve their plight. NGOs are further requested to conduct training sessions on human rights instruments, especially as they pertain to this problem. All states are asked to provide support services to women who have been traumatized by violations of their rights by unscrupulous employers and/or recruiters. The organizers of the Fourth World Conference on Women are urged to include this topic in their agenda, and the Secretary-General is requested to report on the implementation of this resolution.
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  21. 21
    086255

    Resolution No. 43/146. Measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers, 8 December 1988.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:194, 589-90.

    This document contains portions of the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers. In this resolution, the General Assembly reaffirms international instruments protecting human rights but articulates a further need to improve the protection of human rights for migrant workers and their families. The General Assembly then noted the two most recent reports of the Working Group on the Drafting of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families and took measures to enable the Working Group to complete its task.
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  22. 22
    098651

    Refugees, immigrants aggravate population controls.

    Struck D

    BALTIMORE SUN. 1994 Sep 7; 1A, 6A.

    The UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 will discuss the pressure of population growth, the increase in the numbers of refugees, and labor migration between developing and developed countries. Population movement has been estimated as 1/50 in the world, regardless of reason. The impact of movement can be to augment a declining work force or to strain resources in poor countries, such as Zaire or Thailand. Rich countries may also respond with resentment and political turmoil, as is currently occurring in Germany. The tendency is to respond after the fact. Rwanda could be used as an example of a country with population pressure on land resources, which has exacerbated ethnic conflict. If the world in 1994 shows this pattern, the concern is that the future prospects are likely to reflect even greater turmoil and migration. The number of refugees has already increased from 2.5 million in 1970 to 20 million today. The head of the UN Commission on Refugees views the end of the Cold War as responsible for exposed and heightened ethnic and tribal rivalry. Migration movement is viewed as the desire for an improvement in quality of life. Significant shifts are to developed countries such as the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The 1994 UN Plan of Action offers concrete recommendations about mass movements. Recommendations are made to assure host country's assurances of protection in work and safety for migrants, removal of restrictive banking practices that impede monetary transfers between countries, and arrangements for temporary migration. Host countries are urged to provide assistance for return migration. Rights and equal treatment with nationals should be extended to longterm migrants. Each country has a right to enact migration restrictions. Smuggling of immigrants should be stopped through international cooperation. Countries of origin have a responsibility to readmit nationals rejected by other countries. There are few recommendations for dealing with migration related to fear for one's life. Many countries are not open to offers of political asylum, when there are so many seekers and there is misuse of asylum procedures. Refugee solutions should reflect the underlying conditions of war and famine.
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  23. 23
    082284

    Sexual relations in the rural area of Mlomp (Casamance, Senegal).

    Enel C; Pison G

    In: Sexual behaviour and networking: anthropological and socio-cultural studies on the transmission of HIV, edited by Tim Dyson. Liege, Belgium, Editions Derouaux-Ordina, [1992]. 249-67.

    Using a modified form of the WHO partner relations survey questionnaire on a sample of 222 adults, the authors explore seasonal out-migration from the rural area of Mlomp, Senegal, as it relates to coital frequency. Generally low levels of coital frequency were revealed. Unmarried individuals had sex less often than those married. Among married couples, 19% had last intercourse 1-6 days previously and 20% had last intercourse more than 1 year previously. Eliminating those never having experienced sexual intercourse and those having last sex at least 1 year previously, mean duration in the group since last intercourse was about 2 months. A taboo against postpartum sex and the absence of married men during the dry season of palm wine harvesting partially account for these long periods of relative abstinence. Coital frequency is also probably influenced by the overlap of menstrual cycles, seasonal out-migration cycles, and pregnancy and lactation. The authors note that while men are away from their homes during seasonal harvests, however, they definitely partake of extramarital sex. Accordingly, efforts must be made to educate these men about condoms and the risks of unprotected sexual intercourse.
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  24. 24
    084889

    International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.

    Russell SS

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.

    As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
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  25. 25
    070168

    Qatar.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 38-41. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Qatar's 1985 population of 299,000 is projected to grow to 863,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 33.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 2.6% were over the age of 60. 33.5% and 11.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 30.0 to 19.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 67.6 to 76.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 4.6 to 5.7, while infant mortality will decline from 38.0 to 9.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.9 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 34.6 to 25.3. The contraceptive prevalence rate was, while the female mean age at 1st marriage was years. Urban population will increase from 88.0% in 1985 to 94.3% overall by the year 2025. Mortality, morbidity, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low population growth is not. Qatar has an explicit population policy. Desiring to reduce its population to grow at a more rapid rate. General policy promoted overall socioeconomic development and improved quality of life through the provision of social and economic security, housing, and nutrition, secured individual and family welfare, and the exploitation of natural resources and wealth with a view to protecting the environment. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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