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[New York, New York], United Nations, 1990.  p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8/Add.1/Rev.1)Selected indicators of equality, development, and peace are charted for 178 countries and regions of the world for the most recent year available. The data were obtained from the UN Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base for microcomputers (Wistat) maintained by he Statistical Office of the UN Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. The chart updates the prior 1986 publication and supplements the UN publications, Women and Social Trends (1970-90). Population composition and distribution measures include total population in 1990 by sex, percentage of the population >60 years of age by sex, and percentage of rural population by sex (1980/85). Educational measures are provided for the percentage of illiterate population aged 15 years and older (1980-85) by sex, primary and secondary enrollment by sex (1985/87), and post-secondary enrollment by sex. Economic activity is measured by the percentage of women in the labor force. Other measures include the population aged 45-59 not currently married (1980-85) by sex, the total fertility rate (1985-90), maternal death rate (1980/86), and percentage of female contraceptive use 1980/88). The percentage of female legislators is given for 1985/87 where data is available. Definition of terms is briefly and generally given.
INTER-AMERICAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN. 1990 Dec; 7(12):1-5.A lack of support for and information about breast feeding has contributed to the decline in its practice worldwide. The article provides support for the benefits of breast feeding and discusses existing and potential legislation affecting breast feeding and urges policy makers to provide accurate information per Article 4 of the WHO/UNICEF Code. A list of the benefits includes: infant protection against disease, excellent and inexpensive source of nutrition, no contamination of milk supply, lower maternal risk, financial savings, and a complement to family planning. It is noted that artificial formulas and bottles are perceived by poor women as the desirable modern way, and formula companies promote their product in such a manner as to restrict the possibility of breast feeding. It is suggested that effective national health policies include: 1) paid maternity leave with government support, 2) job security after delivery with no loss of seniority, 3) establishment of breast feeding facilities in the workplace or community, 4) provision for nursery breaks without loss of pay, and 5) flexible employment arrangements such as part-time or shorter shifts. Most countries in the Western Hemisphere have a maternity leave policy with the exception of Belize, Saint Vincent, and the US. 18 countries have statutory provisions for nursing breaks at work, and 19 countries require nurseries to be available. Worker satisfaction and lower absenteeism are some benefits to companies supportive of breast feeding practices. The WHO/UNICEF education code recommends information on 1) the advantages of breast feeding, 2) maternal nutrition and preparation for breast feeding, 3) negative effects of partial bottle feeding, 4) the difficulty of resuming breast feeding after stopping, and 5) the correct preparation of breastmilk substitutes made commercially or at home.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. , 156 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 102; World Bank Discussion Papers Africa Technical Department Series)As a companion volume to the first volume on trends and characteristics of migration and the relationship to development issues, this paper for each of 42 Sub-Saharan countries reviews demographic and migration patterns, policies, labor markets, agriculture, remittances, education/brain drain, refugees, and health as appropriate. The reduced tables by country include basic economic and demographic indicators for Sub-Saharan countries, a summary of the stock of migrants by source and destination countries, determinants and intermediate effects of the remittance system, government policies toward population distribution and mobility in terms of acceptance, refugees in need of protection.assistance annually 1985-88, asylum and source countries ranked by refugee stocks for 1988, and significant voluntary repatriations. The data were obtained primarily from census reports; however, the data reflect a time range between 1967 and 1982, undocumented migrants may or may not have been included, and guests may have been excluded from the surveys. Some preliminary analyses revealed that the relationship between the growth of aggregate gross domestic (or national) product and the stock of migrants was insignificant, and that the negative relationship between economic performance and stock of emigrants was not supported. Analysis did show that West African regions have significantly higher proportions of immigrants at the .012 level. Future research might explore the finding that countries with large immigrant populations have higher natural rates of population growth, excluding growth from immigration. Another finding was that enrolled primary school children in the country of origin are negatively related to the stock of emigrants as a percentage of resident population of that country. Finally, internal and external migration are interrelated. Further data collection is necessary because of the shortcomings of available data.
In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 78-81. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)Saudi Arabia's 1985 population of 11,595,000 is projected to grow to 44,780,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.2% were over the age of 60. 38.0% and 6.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 34.3 to 24.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 60.9 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.9 to 3.7, while infant mortality will decline from 85.0 to 21.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.3 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 43.2 to 27.9. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 73.0% in 1985 to 88.2% overall by the year 2025. Fertility, emigration, and spatial distribution levels are not. Saudi Arabia does not have an explicit population policy. In the interest of protecting national identity and meeting the economy's labor requirements, an increase in population size is desired. Steps have therefore been taken to reduce mortality and maintain high fertility with the ultimate goal of reducing dependency upon expatriate labor. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
Setting norms in the United Nations system: the draft convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families in relation to ILO in standards on migrant workers.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION/MIGRATIONS INTERNATIONALES/MIGRACIONES INTERNACIONALES. 1990 Jun; 28(2):133-58.The author reviews the U.N.'s draft proposal concerning the rights of migrant workers and their families. "This article examines the nature and scope of obligations under the United Nations Convention and contrasts them with existing international standards. In the light of the elaboration of the U.N. Convention, the conditions of future normative activities to limit negative consequences of a proliferation of instruments and supervisory mechanisms are outlined." Consideration is given to human and trade union rights, employment, social security, living and working conditions, workers' families, expulsion, and conditions of international migration. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) (EXCERPT)