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[Unpublished] 1989 Dec. , 36,  p. (ADB/BD/WP/89/142; ADF/BD/WP/89/133; Doc. 0086F)This policy paper on Women in Development (WID) by the African Development Bank presents the policy of the Bank Group on integration of women into the development process. It highlights the sectors in which the Bank Group will intervene for women in this lending, technical assistance and training operations. The 6 chapters deal with the background, rationale and objectives of the policy, the role of women in African development, the constraints on women, and responses of international, donor, regional and national agencies to the issue of WID. A review of the activity of African women in agriculture, food production and processing, fishing, informal sector production, education, health, water, environment, and sanitation describes their significant if unacknowledged role. Constraints of illiteracy, lack of education and vocational training, lack of access to materials, marketing, storage, transportation, bookkeeping and management, and the overall legal, cultural and social barriers add up to low participation by women in decision-making processes in society. The last 2 chapters focus on the Bank Group's policy and strategies for the integration of women into the development process. They are categorized by the sectors: agriculture, formal and informal sector of industry, environment, water and sanitation, education, and health. Sector policies and lending operations will have gender dimensions, regional member countries will be encouraged to desegregate data by gender, and gender impact assessments will be undertaken when possible. General areas where WID policies are pertinent also include: vocational training, health, access to credit, staff development, international coordination, and information. Only concerted and sustained collaborative effort between the Bank Group and member countries' decision and policy makers will ensure successful implementation of the policy.
Statistics and indicators on women in Africa. 1986. Statistiques et indicateurs sur les femmes en Afrique. 1986.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 225 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 7)This compendium provides statistics by country on a number of measures of women's status and participation in decision making in Africa. Chapters are devoted to statistics on population composition and distribution, households and families, economic participation and not in the labor force, national household income and expenditures, education and literacy, health and health services and disability, housing conditions and settlement patterns, political participation, and crime. The last chapter gives information on population statistics programs. The time reference period covers 1970-86. 31 statistical tables are given. Population estimates and projections use statistics available as of 1984 from the Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics and the Demographic Yearbook. First marriage is calculated on the basis of a single census or survey according to procedures described by Hajnal. The economically active population refers to work for pay or profit or availability for work. Employment includes enterprise workers, own-account workers, employees, unpaid family workers, members of cooperatives, and members of the armed forces. Attempts are made to more accurately present women's work, particularly for unpaid family work for production for own or household consumption and own-account workers. Occupational groups include professional, administrative, and clerical. Agricultural, industrial, and forestry workers are included in the total. Educational levels pertain to ages 5-7 and lasting about 5 years, ages 10-12 and lasting about 3 years, ages 13-15 and lasting 4 years, and ages 17-19 and lasting at least 3 or 4 years. Health indicators include mortality and survival rates, causes of death, selection female measures, cigarette consumption, and disability. Housing is differentiated by availability of electricity, piped water, and toilets. Women's political participation refers to representation in parliamentary assemblies and as professional staff in the UN Secretariat. Crime includes arrests and prison population. Population programs include data collection in censuses, household surveys conducted under the UN Survey Capability Program, and civil registration systems.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:77.The government of France ratified this UN Convention on Workers with Family Responsibilities on March 16, 1989; the government of Uruguay ratified it on November 16, 1989; and the government of the Yemen Arab Republic ratified it on March 13, 1989.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:136.The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization Convention on employment and occupation discrimination on November 16, 1989, and the government of Democratic Yemen ratified it on January 3, 1989.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:136.The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.
FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1989; (27):13-29.This paper review progress over the past 5 years with respect to the 6 recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population 1984, which specifically address the situation of women. They include: 1) integrating women into development, 2) women's economic participation, 3) education, training, and employment, 4) raising the age at marriage, 5) the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility, and 6) the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Several important areas potentially relevant to population issues which were omitted from the Conference recommendations are identified and discussed--namely, the situation of women (in particular, older women, women who are the sole supporters of families, and women and migration) and the situation of women in times of severe economic adversity. Finally, progress made with respect to data on women is highlighted, and caution is advised with respect to continued calls for new data. In contrast to the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the recommendations are noted for implying an almost unresolvable conflict between women's biological and economic roles. However, it is pointed out that the goals of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women for full equality of men and women would require that the same choices be available to both sexes with respect to labor force participation. While it is too soon to have a clear perspective on the pace and direction of change during the past 5 years, the author finds it impossible to be optimistic about current trends because, in too many areas, progress regarding women has either stagnated or moved into reverse gear. The disappointing record is partially attributed to the tendency for policy makers to see the promotion of economic growth through sound economic policy and advancing the status of women as competing rather than complementary goals. (author's)
Bangkok, Thailand, International Labour Organisation Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, 1989. iii, 56 p.This report shows the growing concerns and activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in both Asia and the Pacific. The 4 substantive sections cover employment, training, labor administration, and industrial relations, the ILO's major concerns. As the countries of the region develop, certain labor concerns are increasingly important. The system of social security is one that governments, employers, and workers are ever more concerned about as urbanization increases and the extended family disappears. The roles of women workers and migrant workers are becoming more marked in the regional scene, and the importance of tourism in the economies of the region is such that hotel and catering training is becoming a crucial factor in development of the tourism infrastructure.
POPULI. 1989 Jun; 16(2):4-19.Barriers that prevent women from reaching their full potential should be eliminated, especially in developing countries. Households headed by females are the poorest in the world. In many countries, women are not permitted to own land. Family planning services are essential to the development of women. About US $3 billion a year is spent on family planning services in developing countries. In many developing nations, discrimination against girls is ingrained. Small, weak babies are likely to come from underfed mothers. Childbirth has risks; these are especially so in developing countries. 3/4 of the developing world's health problems can be solved by prevention and cure. In 60 developing countries, women working outside the home tended to have fewer children than those working at home or in the fields. But studies in Turkey, Thailand, and other countries have shown the opposite. In 38 countries, research has shown that only at higher socioeconomic levels is employment an alternative to childbearing. Relying on women for cheap, unskilled labor is a waste of human and economic resources. Better education and higher employment levels could enable women to better contribute to development. Employment figures for women often misrepresent the actual amount of work that women do. Having women do less work and making what they do more profitable might help bring down family size. In almost every country studied recently educated women have had fewer children than less educated women. The families of these educated mothers are likely to be healthier, too. Recommendations addressed mainly to governments, are given in 6 areas: 1) equality of status; 2) documenting and publicizing women's contribution to development; 3) increasing women's productivity and lessening their double burden; 4) providing family planning; 5) improving women's health; and 6) expanding education. Goals for the year 2000 are given. For the last 20 years, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has emphasized women's role in population programs and projects. UNFPA has set up an internal Working Group on Women, Population and Development.