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  1. 1
    371803

    Working together with businesses. Guidance on TB and TB/HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care in the workplace.

    Dias HM; Uplekar; Amekudzi K; Reid A; Hsu LN; Wilburn S; Mohaupt D

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization {WHO], 2012. 46 p.

    The corporate and business sector belong to a wide range of care providers that offer TB and HIV care to significant proportions of working populations. While considerable literature is now available on diverse public-private mix interventions for TB care and control, there is a dearth of documentation and updated guidance on business sector initiatives in TB care. To address the need for guiding principles to initiate and scale up the engagement of the business sector in TB and HIV care, the WHO in collaboration with ILO, UNAIDS and other partners conducted an assessment of business sector initiatives to address TB and TB/HIV, documented working examples on the ground, and organized an expert consultation to discuss and draw lessons from available evidence. The purpose of this document is to capitalize on the untapped potential of the business sector to respond to these two epidemics. Built on the 2003 guidelines on contribution of workplaces to TB control prepared jointly by the ILO and WHO, these guidelines should help capitalize on increased awareness about TB and HIV and their impact on businesses, and strengthen partnerships between national TB programmes, national HIV programmes, and the business sector to improve TB and HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. Existing guidance to facilitate business participation predominantly focuses on HIV. This document is therefore principally centred on TB prevention, treatment and care and it’s linkages with HIV. This document is designed to provide guidance to TB and HIV programme managers, employers, workers organizations, occupational health staff and other partners on the need and ways to work in partnership to design and implement workplace TB/HIV prevention, treatment and care programmes integrated with occupational health and HIV workplace programmes where relevant. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    328495
    Peer Reviewed

    Fighting the brain drain.

    McColl K

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2008 Sep 15; 337:958-960.

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 3% of the world's health workforce cares for 10% of the world's population bearing 24% of the global disease burden. Developing countries need an extra 4.3 million health workers, and urgent action is required to scale up education and training. Last month the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health emphasised the importance of building and strengthening the health workforce if the goal of achieving health equity within a generation is to be realised. International cooperation will be essential to strengthen health systems and to manage the migration of health workers from developing to developed countries. But these measures will take time. What can African and Asian health systems do to recruit and retain health workers now? How can health workers be persuaded to practise in rural areas? Guidelines, commissioned by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, aim to help countries make the best use of incentives to attract and retain health professionals. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    307526
    Peer Reviewed

    Resourcing global health: a conference of the Global Network of WHO for Nursing and Midwifery Development, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2006.

    Duff E

    Midwifery. 2006 Sep; 22(3):200-203.

    With the focus of the World Health Report 2006 Working for health together firmly on the issue of human resources in health, the subject is officially placed among those at the top of the international agenda. The debates at this conference, held June 7--9 and hosted by the WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nursing & Midwifery Education, Research & Practice, based in Glasgow Caledonian University's School of Nursing, Midwifery and Community Health, were therefore highly topical and drew significant speakers from both the host country Scotland and 20-plus other nations. The conference was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN). (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    183476

    Hasta la vista, paradise.

    Deyal T

    Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.

    More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
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  5. 5
    182288
    Peer Reviewed

    Assessing human resources for health: what can be learned from labour force surveys?

    Gupta N; Diallo K; Zum P; Dal Poz MR

    Human Resources for Health. 2003 Jul 22; 1:[24] p..

    Background: Human resources are an essential element of a health system’s inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods: Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results: Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions: While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of occupational distribution and educational attainment were found that may be attributable to differences in health care delivery and education systems; however, definitional inconsistencies in the classification of health occupations across surveys were also apparent. (author's)
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  6. 6
    060440

    Statement from the Consultation on AIDS and the Workplace, Geneva, 27-29 June 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS; World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Occupational Health; International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1988. [4] p. (WHO/GPA/INF/88.7)

    Government, trade union, business, and public health representatives from 18 countries met in Geneva in June 1988 to discuss risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, the response of workers and management to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, and the potential use of the workplace for health education activities. The emphasis was on occupational settings where there is no risk of transmittal of the HIV from worker to worker or worker to client. Protection of the human rights and dignity of HIV-infected workers should be the cornerstone of occupational policy on AIDS; workers with symptomatic HIV infection should be accorded the same treatment as any other worker with an illness. Pre-employment screening for HIV infection is discriminatory and should be prohibited. Employees should be under no obligation to inform their employer about their HIV status. Any information about seropositivity on the part of individual workers should be kept confidential by the employer to protect the employee from discrimination and social stigmatization. To create a climate of mutual understanding, unions and employers are urged to organize educational campaigns. HIV- infected individuals should be entitled to work as long as they are able, and efforts should be make to seek reasonable alternative working arrangements if feasible. Finally, HIV-infected persons should not be excluded from social security benefits and other occupationally related benefits. Overall, the AIDS crisis presents employers with an opportunity to improve working relationships in a way that enhances human rights and ensures freedom from discrimination.
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  7. 7
    065658

    Realizing the benefits of breastfeeding.

    Smith P

    INTER-AMERICAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN. 1990 Dec; 7(12):1-5.

    A lack of support for and information about breast feeding has contributed to the decline in its practice worldwide. The article provides support for the benefits of breast feeding and discusses existing and potential legislation affecting breast feeding and urges policy makers to provide accurate information per Article 4 of the WHO/UNICEF Code. A list of the benefits includes: infant protection against disease, excellent and inexpensive source of nutrition, no contamination of milk supply, lower maternal risk, financial savings, and a complement to family planning. It is noted that artificial formulas and bottles are perceived by poor women as the desirable modern way, and formula companies promote their product in such a manner as to restrict the possibility of breast feeding. It is suggested that effective national health policies include: 1) paid maternity leave with government support, 2) job security after delivery with no loss of seniority, 3) establishment of breast feeding facilities in the workplace or community, 4) provision for nursery breaks without loss of pay, and 5) flexible employment arrangements such as part-time or shorter shifts. Most countries in the Western Hemisphere have a maternity leave policy with the exception of Belize, Saint Vincent, and the US. 18 countries have statutory provisions for nursing breaks at work, and 19 countries require nurseries to be available. Worker satisfaction and lower absenteeism are some benefits to companies supportive of breast feeding practices. The WHO/UNICEF education code recommends information on 1) the advantages of breast feeding, 2) maternal nutrition and preparation for breast feeding, 3) negative effects of partial bottle feeding, 4) the difficulty of resuming breast feeding after stopping, and 5) the correct preparation of breastmilk substitutes made commercially or at home.
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  8. 8
    080431

    Women's health: across age and frontier.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. vii, 107 p.

    WHO has compiled tables and graphs in a book reflecting various components of the health of women worldwide. These tables and graphs demonstrate that women continue to be denied their right to health--the most basic of human rights. Gender-related factors account, for the most part, for women's vulnerability, resulting in poorer health for females than males. They reveal the social discrimination women who experience. The book covers women's lifespan to illustrate not only inequity and discrimination throughout the years, but also the intergenerational effects, importance of adolescence, the broader context of women's reproduction, and the importance of elderly women. It first examines socioeconomic determinants of women's health, such as women's status, female literacy, income level, labor force participation, mother's education, and female-headed household. Next, it looks at infancy and childhood, specifically sex preference, breast feeding and weaning, child nutrition, sex-specific mortality, and sex-specific incidence rates for respiratory infections. It then moves on to explore adolescence. It covers the adult years prior to age 65 by focusing on women at work, pregnancy and childbirth, infections and chronic diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, cancer, and smoking-related diseases), and violence and mental disorders (e.g., domestic violence, homicide, rape, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse). It concludes with tables and graphs on elderly women. They show life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, widowhood, distribution of the elderly, elderly living in rural and urban areas, cardiovascular disease death rates, osteoarthritis, and a definite rheumatoid arthritis.
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  9. 9
    055727

    AIDS in the developing countries.

    Tinker J

    ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 1988 Winter; 4(2):43-8.

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd world as well as negative effects on tourism. The global underclass will be disproportionately affected by AIDS as the blacks and Hispanics already are in New York and Miami. Thus far, the reaction of donor countries to the World Health Organization's (WHO) appeal for funds to fight the battle against AIDS has been excellent. The global strategy of WHO places priority on national campaigns, but none of the national campaigns will be effective unless linked to similar actions in other nations to form a vigorous international program. The US has a special responsibility to provide international leadership on AIDS. The US is the world leader in AIDS research and has the bulk of the virus research capacity. Further, no country can come close to matching US experience in dealing with AIDS through "safe sex" education campaigns.
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  10. 10
    052932

    Consultation on AIDS and the workplace.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    AIDS ACTION. 1988 Dec; (5):3-4.

    The 1988 Consultation on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Workplace, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), addressed 3 issues: 1) risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, 2) the response of businesses and workers to the AIDS epidemic, and 3) use of the workplace for AIDS education. There is no evidence to suggest that HIV can be transmitted by casual, person-to-person contact in the workplace. The central policy issue for businesses concerns protection of the human rights of workers with HIV infection. Most workers with HIV/AIDS want to continue working as long as they are able to, and they should be enabled to contribute their creativity and productivity in a supportive occupational setting. Consistent policies and procedures should be developed at national and enterprise levels before HIV-related questions arise in the workplace. Such policies should be communicated to all concerned, continually reviewed in the light of scientific and epidemiologic evidence, monitored for their successful implementation, and evaluated for their effectiveness. Pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening, whether for assessment of fitness to work or for insurance purposes, should not be required and raises serious concerns about discrimination. Moreover, there should be no obligation on the worker's part to inform his or her employer if HIV infection develops. Information and educational activities at the workplace are essential to create the climate of collective responsibility and mutual understanding required to protect individuals with HIV or AIDS from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, employers or clients, and unions.
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  11. 11
    268271

    Report on a WHO meetings: Steering Committee Meeting of the Task Force on Child Labor and Health, Bombay, India: 21-26 May 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1985. 14 p. (MCH/85.2)

    This report records the proceedings of a WHO meeting on child labor and health held in Bombay, India, May 28-29, 1984. The objectives of the meeting were to define the possible health implications of child labor, to make recommendations for inter-sectoral action, to promote greater collaboration among individuals and groups in the field of child labor, and to promote inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary research in child labor and health, including the provision of technical support for national action. Reports were given of national workshops on child labor in Bombay and Nairobi, and research projects in progress in Bombay, Nairobi, and Hyderabad were reviewed. The meeting also discussed the WHO inter-regional workshop in Bombay, May 21-26, 1984. Points emerging from the workshop included suggestions for how the Task Force could best promote research and actions at the local and national level, and consideration was also given on how to improve future workshops. Other aspects of the inter-regional workshop discussed at the meeting were proposals for future research, workshop training materials, and promotion of national and regional workshops. The Steering Committee designated additional linkages with Governmental agencies, NGOs, and international organizations as one of its areas for action, along with dissemination of information to raise general community awareness of child labor and its health implications. The Occupational Health Unit of WHO in Geneva is organizing a study group on "The Health of Working Children" which is to meet in Geneva from October 14-18, 1985. It was recommended that the composition of the Steering Committee be broadened to include additional disciplines and agencies. The next Steering Committee meeting should occur within 12-24 months.
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  12. 12
    266034

    The economic aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme in the Volta Basin.

    Bazin M

    In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 163-5. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)

    The Onchocerciasis Control Program in the Volta Basin is aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease so that it is no longer a major risk to public health and an obstacle to socioeconomic development. Aerial spraying of insecticides has been carried out over 7 countries of West Africa where 10 million people live. The economic advantages of the program come from 2 production factors: labor and land. As far as labor is concerned, the program will increase productive capacities by reducing the production losses resulting from vision disorders or blindness in the laborforce, decrease the debilitating effects of the parasite which leaves people more vulnerable to other diseases, and increase ability of farmers to cultivate land near rivers without constant exposure to hundreds of bites a day. The major economic development will come from developing new land. Several reports are cited indicating projected kilometers of new land that would become available. The major concern is the best way to organize the utilization of the new land, taking into account organized and unorganized migration. It is apparent that various areas and countries within the program have different demographic pressures on their land as well as different structures and planning institutions. Considerable resources of men and financial means are required to finance these land development programs and must come from international sources. Some of the costs and cost evaluations are given. A belief in the cooperation among rich and poor countries for a program without boundaries has already demonstrated the cooperative nature of the Onchocerciasis Control Program.
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