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New Delhi, India, Continental Printers . 210 p.This is a report of the National Symposium on Labor and Population Policies organized by the Ministry of Labor in New Delhi from April 15-18, 1974. It was held with the active participation of the Department of Family planning and in collaboration with the International Labor Organization (ILO) with financial assistance from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, (UNFPA). It brought the workers and employers' organizations of previous conferences to a common forum permitting discussion of the problems already considered by them separately. The Symposium, in which Family Planning Institutions and National Family Planning and Labor Managements also participated had, for its aim, to spell out the precise role to be played by the different aencies and to draw up a specific action program expressing the widest possible agreement of all the concerned parties, so that optimum results could be achieved. Population growth cannot be dealt with in isolation and must be viewed in the context of the overall social and economic policies of the country. However, the impact that unplanned population growth has on socioeconomic development and on well-being of the people cannot be ignored or belittled. The concern of the Symposium was population policies and family welfare planning within the organized sector as an important part of the overall national program.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . vii, 96 p.Working to balance population growth with socioeconomic development, the Government of India has had a population policy in place since 1951. Net reproduction rate of 1 is targeted to be met by the year 2000. This paper present India's population policy, and analyzes overall strategy for achieving population goals. While strategy is basically sound, there are, however, serious problems with program implementation. Information, education, and communication activities, as well as population education are reviewed. Non-governmental organizations and organized labor are then examined in the context of their roles in overall population strategy. Programmatic review continues and concludes with discussion of integrated maternal and child health/family planning components, improving the status and roles of women, and consideration of institutional framework, coordination, and management. Specific observations and recommendations are presented for each of these issues and topics, as well as for data collection and policy analysis, and the coordination of population assistance. Future UNFPA country programs should expand already initiated projects, and develop new ones aimed at providing a wider array of locally available contraceptives. While past assistance has focused upon health and family planning, future programs may encourage other areas of population activities. Examples of such activities include demographic research and training, research and action programs in women and development, and experimental approaches to population education.
POPULI. 1989 Jun; 16(2):4-19.Barriers that prevent women from reaching their full potential should be eliminated, especially in developing countries. Households headed by females are the poorest in the world. In many countries, women are not permitted to own land. Family planning services are essential to the development of women. About US $3 billion a year is spent on family planning services in developing countries. In many developing nations, discrimination against girls is ingrained. Small, weak babies are likely to come from underfed mothers. Childbirth has risks; these are especially so in developing countries. 3/4 of the developing world's health problems can be solved by prevention and cure. In 60 developing countries, women working outside the home tended to have fewer children than those working at home or in the fields. But studies in Turkey, Thailand, and other countries have shown the opposite. In 38 countries, research has shown that only at higher socioeconomic levels is employment an alternative to childbearing. Relying on women for cheap, unskilled labor is a waste of human and economic resources. Better education and higher employment levels could enable women to better contribute to development. Employment figures for women often misrepresent the actual amount of work that women do. Having women do less work and making what they do more profitable might help bring down family size. In almost every country studied recently educated women have had fewer children than less educated women. The families of these educated mothers are likely to be healthier, too. Recommendations addressed mainly to governments, are given in 6 areas: 1) equality of status; 2) documenting and publicizing women's contribution to development; 3) increasing women's productivity and lessening their double burden; 4) providing family planning; 5) improving women's health; and 6) expanding education. Goals for the year 2000 are given. For the last 20 years, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has emphasized women's role in population programs and projects. UNFPA has set up an internal Working Group on Women, Population and Development.
PEOPLE. 1987; 14(2):33.3 agencies in Turkey are placing family planning centers in factory settings: the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT), the Confederation of Trade Unions (TURK-IS), and the Family Health and Planning Foundation, a consortium of industrialists. The FPAT started with 27 factories 7 years ago, educating and serving 35,000 workers. The 1st work with management, then train health professionals in family planning, immunization, infant and child care, maternal health, education, motivation techniques, record-keeping and follow-up. Worker education is then begun in groups of 50. New sites are covered on a 1st-come-1st-served basis. This program is expected to be successful because newcomers to city jobs are beginning to see the need for smaller families, and accept family planning. TURK-IS has conducted seminars for trade union leaders and workers' representatives and provided contraceptives in 4 family planning clinics and in 20 hospitals run by Social Security, a workers' health organization. They have distributed condoms in factories and trained nurses to insert IUDs in factory units. The businessmen have opened family planning services in 15 factories, with support from the Pathfinder Fund, and hope to make the project self-supporting.
Population and employment, statement made at the Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva 14 June 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The importance of the relationship between poverty and population was underlined by the World Population Conference of 1974 at which the World Population Plan of Action was adopted. The Plan states that population goals and policies are integral parts of social, economic and cultural development. Population programs can reinforce the effect of other development activities, and can attain their objectives only in the presence of certain basic developmental requirements. Among these are the availability of employment, improved social conditions and better income distribution. Development assistance has an important role to play in support of national efforts, but in order to assist effectively, basic-needs strategies for assistance policies and programs will have to be restructured and changed. The purposes and forms of assistance will have to be changed to provide for more support of local costs, recurrent expenditures, long-term commitments and more flexibility in applying donor policies and principles. The UNFPA is in the process of developing criteria for setting priorities for future allocation of resources. Developing countries should be made self-reliant as fully and rapidly as possible. The UNFPA will build up the capacity and ability of recipient countries to respond to their own needs. High priority will be given to supporting resource development and institution-building at the national level; to strengthening the managerial, administrative, and productive capabilities of recipient countries; and to exploring through research and pilot projects innovative approaches to population problems. In order to identify the developing countries with the most urgent need for population assistance, the Fund is proposing the use of a set of criteria.
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
[Unpublished] . 51 p.The purpose of the Evaluation Mission of the Project, Assistance to the Manpower Division, Ghana, was as follows: to evaluate the project activities with particular attention to the implementation of the project's immediate and longterm objectives; to identify the factors which may adversely influence the project implementation and the use of project outputs for national planning and manpower policies; and to describe the current institutional framework for manpower planning and policies. The Evaluation Mission took place between October 14 and November 2, 1974. This report covers the evaluation of the project (formulation of the project and project implementation, work plan, experts' working relationships, the project coordinator, the UN volunteers, the participation of national counterparts in the implementation of the project, the implementation of the fellowship program, the delivery of vehicles and other equipment, training of the national counterparts, and a seminar for government officials); and institutional framework for manpower planning in Ghana (the Ghana Manpower Board, the Committee of the Manpower Board, the meetings of the Board, the role of the manpower division, the manpower division responsibilities in relation to the project, and the future trend in the development of the manpower division). It was the impression of the Evaluation Mission that the Project as a whole is still not in full operation. Only limited progress has been made toward achieving the immediate objectives of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and International Labor Organization (ILO) assistance to the Manpower Division, Ministry of Economic Planning. There was general agreement that the implementation of the Project outlined in the work plan is not proceeding satisfactorily, and urgent action must be taken to improve the management of the project, to define accurately the administrative and executive responsibilities, and to strengthen the efficiency of day-to-day working activities. A serious shortcoming is the inherent inconsistency of the final Project Document. The links between the long range and the immediate objectives are, to a certain extent, represented by the training activities but have received no attention by the Project Coordinator. The Project's fellowship program is behind schedule. UN volunteers are not being well utilized. Detailed recommendations are included.
New York, UNFPA, 1976 Aug 9. 39 p.The UN Fund for Population Activities has been supporting population activities undertaken by the International Institute for Labor Studies (IILS) connected to the International Labor Organization in Geneva since 1972. This evaluation report covers the following: ILO Population Program; IILS (objectives, activities, follow-up, staff, and financial situation); population activities of IILS (objectives, activities in the field of population, financial situation, and achievements); and conclusions and recommendations. The IILS was founded by the Governing Body of ILO in 1960 for the purpose of furthering a better international understanding of labor and social development problems and of the possible methods for their solution. The Institute should provide those with responsibilities in industry, in the trade unions, and in government, and in community work, i.e., future policymakers, with opportunities for discussion, exchange of ideas and research in the area of social policies. In 1975 IILS was reorganized to reflect the emphasis of the work in the following 3 principal areas: economic change and labor policy; the dynamics of industrial relations systems; and quality of life and social perspectives. The IILS objectives have been translated into major activities in the following areas: education; research; symposia and meetings; and other activities. The long range objectives of the population activities of the IILS include: contributing to climate of rational debate and action on national population policy; building bridges between the institutions of the labor sector and those agencies with primary responsibility in the field of population and family planning; increasing the objective study and consideration of population problems and their relation to development and social policy by key personnel in worker, employer, and government organizations, who will play a leading role in labor and social policy decision making; and promoting the study of these problems by academics in the labor studies field in developing countries. The objectives of the IILS population program are consistent with the new objectives of the ILO program. IILS has performed its population activities in a satisfactory manner. UNFPA funds have been crucial for these activities. The Institute has shown a special capacity for organizing educational activities. Although it is not possible to make any precise judgement of the program's achievements, it appears that the immediate objectives have been realized in part and that the medium range objectives are partially achieved. The long range objectives have a potential for being realized in the future.
U.N. Monthly Chronicle. 1973 Feb; 10(2):57-58.The Government of Malaysia and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities on 24 January signed an agreement that is part of a multi-million dollar scheme to extend Malaysia's family planning programme to all sectors of the population, particularly those in the countryside. The total estimated cost of the five-year project is $14 million with the Fund providing a grant of $4.3 million, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development providing a loan of $5 million, and the Malaysia Government allocating $4.7 million from its budget. Although well-endowed with natural resources and in a relatively favourable financial position with a per capita gross national product of $380, Malaysia, with a population of 11 million, is facing economic and social pressure from a population growth rate averaging about 3 percent in the 1960s, one of the highest in Asia. That growth has rapidly enlarged the labour force and has hindered the application of resources to raise living standards and to create jobs. (Full text)
Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in India: IND/74/PO7, IND/78/PO6, IND/78/PO7 and IND/79/P12 (February 1983).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vii, 82,  p.Independent, in-depth evaluations at the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are undertaken to provide timely, analytical information for decision-making within UNFPA and to provide one of the inputs that enable the Executive Director to meet the requirements of accountability to the Governing Council. The main focus of this report is on conclusions and recommendations. Part I summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations which are addressed primarily to UNFPA and the executing agency. Part II goes into more datail on the projects being evaluated and the conclusions and recommendations are addressed primarily to the government and the executing agency. The evaluation covers 4 population education projects in India. It is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the Asia and Pacific Region. The 1st project reviewed, Population Education in the Organized Sector, is mainly concerned with the development of prototype training and information, education and communication (IEC) materials for use in the organized sector, the adaptation of these materials into regional languages for distribution, and in motivational/training activities for the organized sector. The 2nd project concerns cooperation of management and workers in population education and welfare activities in the industrial sector. It is designed to enlist the participation of a greater number of employers in providing family planning education, motivation and services to their workers and their families. The 3rd project shares the same service orientation, focuses on the industrial sector and is designed to enlist the participation of employers in the provision of family planning education, motivation and services for their workers and their families. Finally, the 4th project evaluated is the Tripartite Collaboration for Promotion of Family Welfare Activities in the Organized sector. Its principal aim is to provide family welfare education to textile workers and their families. Its major assumption is that the key role in persuading workers to accept family planning services is played by the union. These projects are assessed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations made in terms of the institutionalization and integration of population education programs with other relevant programs, achievement of population education objectives, training activities, including curricula and IEC materials, and impact upon target audiences. The methodology for the evaluation and the reporting procedures are included in an appendix.
LABOUR AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES IN ASIA AND PACIFIC. 1982 Jun; (8):4.In June 1982 a Hong Kong electronics firm organized a "Family Day" for its 1100 employees in an effort to promote the message of a small family norm and family planning. The activities included mixing education with recreation, taking the form of a carnival. Paul Lee, Population Education Officer of the Chinese Manufacturers Association (CMA), judged the project as a success and has expressed the hope that other district boards will cooperate in the industrial sector family welfare education program to facilitate its implementation in all industrial districts of Hong Kong. An International Labor Organization-assisted survey on family welfare and family planning in Hong Kong industry showed that a large majority of employers supported in-plant family welfare education for their employees.