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BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2008 Sep 15; 337:958-960.In sub-Saharan Africa, 3% of the world's health workforce cares for 10% of the world's population bearing 24% of the global disease burden. Developing countries need an extra 4.3 million health workers, and urgent action is required to scale up education and training. Last month the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health emphasised the importance of building and strengthening the health workforce if the goal of achieving health equity within a generation is to be realised. International cooperation will be essential to strengthen health systems and to manage the migration of health workers from developing to developed countries. But these measures will take time. What can African and Asian health systems do to recruit and retain health workers now? How can health workers be persuaded to practise in rural areas? Guidelines, commissioned by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, aim to help countries make the best use of incentives to attract and retain health professionals. (excerpt)
Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1995; 4(3):18-9.In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1986 Jan. 83 p.The educational activities of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Population and Labor Policies Program was launched in the early 1970s. It's spectrum includes: promotion of information and education activities devoted to population and family planning questions at various levels, particularly by means of workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; policy- oriented research on the demographic aspects of measures of social policy in certain fields, such as employment and social security; and efforts to stimulate participation by social security and enterprise- level medical services in the promotion of family planning. At the outset, the ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of educational activities in selected countries. Slowly, the concept of an ILO population-oriented program developed, and regional labor and population teams were established. At the next stage, regional advisers extended their activities to the national level. Project descriptions are included for the countries of India, Jordan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Nepal, Congo, Zambia, and the Philippines.
Geneva, Switzerland, [ILO], 1988. x, 93 p. (International Labour Conference, 75th Session, 1988)Part II of the 1987 Report of the Director-General of the International Labor Organization (ILO) summarizes progress in terms of standard setting, technical cooperation, and information dissemination in labor relations, workers' and employers' activities, social security, the World Employment Program, and training. Also included is a report of the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories. The overall goals of the ILO's Medium-Term Plan for 1990-95 include the defense and promotion of human rights, the promotion of employment, continuous improvement of working conditions, and the maintenance and strengthening of social security and welfare. In view of problems arising from certain atypical forms of employment and new working time arrangements, the ILO's role in the organized, formal sectors of national economies will assumed increased importance. It will also be necessary for the ILO to increase its efforts to extend social protection to the unorganized, informal sectors of national economies and to promote the protection of groups such as women, migrants, and younger and older workers. The creation of productive employment and the alleviation of poverty remain the most significant challenges facing the ILO today. Among the milestones of 1987 were: 1) the 4th European Regional Conference, which addressed both the impact of demographic development on social security and the training and retraining implications of technological change; 2) the 74th Maritime Session, devoted to the profound economic and technical changes faced by seafarers; 3) the High-Level Meeting on Employment and Structural Adjustment; and 4) the 14th International Conference of Labor Statisticians, which adopted new standards designed to enhance the reliability of national labor statistics and their international comparability.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, Population and Labour Policies Branch, 1978.  p.This brochure, addressed primarily to International Labor Office (ILO) personnel, seeks to introduce the content and modalities of the population and family welfare education component of the ILO's Labor and Population Program. Whenever possible, training projects should include a presentation of relevant population/family welfare issues consistent with national policies and priorities. The content of such education should be directed at family-level relationships and the family well-being of individual workers. From the standpoint of the worker, the relationship between labor and population has 2 facets: 1) the pressure of labor supply (caused both by current birth rates and migration to urban industrial centers) and 2) family welfare and the standard of living. Workers must be shown that they can determine their own family size and, in so doing, they can increase their control over actual and expected material resources. The contribution required from a training program is relatively small. In countries where there is an ILO-executed family welfare education program, such trainers can be used to both prepare and present the new component in the basic training programs. In countries where population policies are primarily health oriented and implemented largely by health ministries with little participation of other sectors, the introduction of a family welfare component into an ongoing basic training program may need to be preceded by interdepartmental discussions and clearances at government level.
Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. iii, 48 p.The International Labour Organisation (ILO) was set up to bring governments, employers, and trade unions together for united action in the cause of social justice and better living conditions everywhere. It is a tripartite organization, with worker and employer representatives taking part in its work on equal status with those of governments. The number of ILO member countries now stands at 150. 4 Asian countries--China, Japan, India, and Thailand--participated in the establishment of the ILO in 1919. Today, there are 20 ILO member countries in Asia and the Pacific. This report highlights the actions of the Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP) in 1986 and the continuing efforts it undertakes to address current as well as emerging interests. The ILO recognizes that the long-term security of this region pivots on the promotion of employment and human resource development, as well as on the improvement of social justice. Technical programs and advisory services undertaken by the ILO are geared towards achieving these objectives. These programs, which utilize both traditional and innovative approaches to development, incorporate the region's current and emerging priorities. In the area of employment promotion, the ILO is paying increasing attention to the ever-broadening role of the informal sector in employment absorption and income generation. In carrying out efforts to improve social justice, the ILO remains steadfast to the basic principle of equitable distribution of economic growth among the social partners. The ILO's services in the fields of occupational safety and health, social security, workers' education, employers' activities, industrial relations, employment opportunities, and related areas are aimed at achieving this goal.
Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, . 61,  p.The International Labour Organization's (ILO) 1985 annual report for the Asia and the Pacific region summarizes the activities of a year spent in consolidating past programs and charting the course and direction of ILO's future programs. 2 major events of the year at which leading labor figures converged were the Tenth Asia and Pacific Labour Ministers' Conference and the Tenth Asian Regional Conference of the ILO. A number of recommendations, conclusions, and resolutions calling for measures to enhance the effectiveness of ILO programs and projects was suggested. A new ILO office in Beijing was set up in the beginning of the year in pursurance of ILO's policy of decentralization, bringing to 10 the number of ILO representative offices in the region. The ILO's technical assistance programs continue to promote social and economic development through human resources development, the improvement of living and working conditions, job creation, and the development of social institutions. The dynamism and diversity of the region made an impact on ILO activities during 1985 affecting such areas as technology, migration, and productivity. Programs to alleviate the plight of specific disadvantaged groups such as women, young workers, and disabled persons have also been actively pursued. This annual review of ILO activities provides information on the scope and depth of ILO's multifaceted work in this region.
New York, UNFPA, 1976 Aug 9. 39 p.The UN Fund for Population Activities has been supporting population activities undertaken by the International Institute for Labor Studies (IILS) connected to the International Labor Organization in Geneva since 1972. This evaluation report covers the following: ILO Population Program; IILS (objectives, activities, follow-up, staff, and financial situation); population activities of IILS (objectives, activities in the field of population, financial situation, and achievements); and conclusions and recommendations. The IILS was founded by the Governing Body of ILO in 1960 for the purpose of furthering a better international understanding of labor and social development problems and of the possible methods for their solution. The Institute should provide those with responsibilities in industry, in the trade unions, and in government, and in community work, i.e., future policymakers, with opportunities for discussion, exchange of ideas and research in the area of social policies. In 1975 IILS was reorganized to reflect the emphasis of the work in the following 3 principal areas: economic change and labor policy; the dynamics of industrial relations systems; and quality of life and social perspectives. The IILS objectives have been translated into major activities in the following areas: education; research; symposia and meetings; and other activities. The long range objectives of the population activities of the IILS include: contributing to climate of rational debate and action on national population policy; building bridges between the institutions of the labor sector and those agencies with primary responsibility in the field of population and family planning; increasing the objective study and consideration of population problems and their relation to development and social policy by key personnel in worker, employer, and government organizations, who will play a leading role in labor and social policy decision making; and promoting the study of these problems by academics in the labor studies field in developing countries. The objectives of the IILS population program are consistent with the new objectives of the ILO program. IILS has performed its population activities in a satisfactory manner. UNFPA funds have been crucial for these activities. The Institute has shown a special capacity for organizing educational activities. Although it is not possible to make any precise judgement of the program's achievements, it appears that the immediate objectives have been realized in part and that the medium range objectives are partially achieved. The long range objectives have a potential for being realized in the future.
Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 69 p.This discussion presents a conceptual model indicating some of the established and hypothesized links between a number of labor laws and policies, in particular International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions, divisions of labor and resources by sex and age, familial roles, and fertility. The labor laws and policies considered include: legal protection of the young through adoption and execution of conventions regarding the minimum age for employment and thus the suppression of child labor; protection for the elderly and incapacitated through employment related social security systems; support for sexual equality; maternity protection legislation and assistance for workers with family responsibilities; and programs and laws to increase individual access to training, employment, and income generating opportunities in nonfamilial contexts. The paper outlines briefly the content and goals of some of the ILO conventions and programs which have a bearing on the conditions widely thought to be related to fertility decline, i.e., improved status of relatively deprived groups, women, children, the aged, and individual access to training, employment, and incomes. These changes are viewed in the context of their potential impact on family relatins. Thus, the 2nd section focuses on changing parental roles and the impacts of diminishing child labor upon the benefits and costs of bearing and raising children and increasing availability of social security benefits. Comparative empirical evidence of change in relation to fertility is mentioned. The next section examines sexual equality and in particular impacts of equality in the occupational sphere upon equality in the domestic domain and consequent effects upon reproduction. Evidence from different countries is reported. Changing kin roles is the subject of the 4th section. The impacts of social and spatial mobility on kin roles are indicated as well as the potential impacts upon role conflicts, individualism, and lower fertility. From a global perspective, fertility rates remain high in regions of the world where children continue to supply an important labor source to their parents and other elders and where women lack equality of opportunity in labor markets and remain dependent throughout life upon kin, husbands, and sons. In countries where old and young are protected by child labor laws and social security systems and the sexes are relatively equal with respect to training and employment, problems of fertility rates being perceived as too low are encountered and corresponding policies to lighten parental burdens and increase benefits of childbearing have been introduced.