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BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2008 Sep 15; 337:958-960.In sub-Saharan Africa, 3% of the world's health workforce cares for 10% of the world's population bearing 24% of the global disease burden. Developing countries need an extra 4.3 million health workers, and urgent action is required to scale up education and training. Last month the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health emphasised the importance of building and strengthening the health workforce if the goal of achieving health equity within a generation is to be realised. International cooperation will be essential to strengthen health systems and to manage the migration of health workers from developing to developed countries. But these measures will take time. What can African and Asian health systems do to recruit and retain health workers now? How can health workers be persuaded to practise in rural areas? Guidelines, commissioned by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, aim to help countries make the best use of incentives to attract and retain health professionals. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Ford Foundation, 2003.  p.The connections between globalization and women’s reproductive health and rights are not straightforward, and as yet, there is little systematic evidence exploring these linkages. The following paper will examine more closely what is meant by globalization and attempt to analyze its broad implications for women’s health and well-being, albeit largely from first principles. (excerpt)
Working out of poverty. Report of the Director-General. International Labour Conference, 91st Session 2003.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 2003. ix, 106 p.Chapter 1 crystallizes my thoughts, commitments and ideas on this vital issue. We have a rich historic mandate that calls us to the challenge of fighting poverty. Our experience on the ground is bringing that mandate to life throughout the world. And we face common challenges as we join with others to provide women and men with the tools and support to work out of poverty. Chapter 1 is my personal exploration of these key issues. The subsequent chapters are more technical in nature, providing an in-depth and detailed account of the various dimensions of ILO efforts to eradicate poverty. Chapter 2 focuses on the complexity of poverty and the cycle of disadvantage that it creates. Chapter 3 describes ILO action on the ground and tools in the fight against poverty. Chapter 4 examines how rights at work and the institutional structure of the informal and formal labour market relate to employment creation, poverty reduction and competitiveness in a global economy. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the need for a coordination of policies that focus on different dimensions of the life of people living in poverty. (excerpt)
New Delhi, India, Continental Printers . 210 p.This is a report of the National Symposium on Labor and Population Policies organized by the Ministry of Labor in New Delhi from April 15-18, 1974. It was held with the active participation of the Department of Family planning and in collaboration with the International Labor Organization (ILO) with financial assistance from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, (UNFPA). It brought the workers and employers' organizations of previous conferences to a common forum permitting discussion of the problems already considered by them separately. The Symposium, in which Family Planning Institutions and National Family Planning and Labor Managements also participated had, for its aim, to spell out the precise role to be played by the different aencies and to draw up a specific action program expressing the widest possible agreement of all the concerned parties, so that optimum results could be achieved. Population growth cannot be dealt with in isolation and must be viewed in the context of the overall social and economic policies of the country. However, the impact that unplanned population growth has on socioeconomic development and on well-being of the people cannot be ignored or belittled. The concern of the Symposium was population policies and family welfare planning within the organized sector as an important part of the overall national program.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. xii, 243 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 138; ST/ESCAP/1572)This UN study presents a detailed analysis of rural-urban migration, based on results from the 1990-91 round of population censuses for Nepal, India, and Thailand. The Asia and Pacific region is urbanizing at a rapid pace. Urban growth in Nepal, India, and Thailand increased during the 1970s-1980s and declined during the 1980s-1990s. Rural-urban migration was lower during the 1980s in India and Thailand compared to the 1970s, but in Nepal the level of migration increased. There was no consistent pattern of urban concentration or deconcentration in India and Thailand, but Nepal's capital, Kathmandu, grew at a faster rate than the urban average. Some cities in India grew more rapidly during the 1980s, such as Greater Bombay, Hyderabad, Pune, Lucknow, Surat, Jaipur, and Kochi, with rates above 3.9%. Although Bangkok Metropolis declined from 61% to 58% in urban population, the five provinces bordering Bangkok grew by at least 4%. During the 1980s, Kathmandu and Pokara grew at a rate of 7.1% compared to the national average of 4.4%. Of the 7.3% of Indian total population who were migrants during 1976-81, 20% (50 million) were rural-urban migrants. Of the 8.0% (4.0 million) of Thai total population who were migrants in 1985-90, about 20% were rural-urban migrants. During 1990-91 there were 97,109 migrants among Nepal's total population (0.5%), of which 24% were rural-urban migrants. Each country prepared population projections to 2011. The proportion of female migrants increased in India. In all three countries, female migrants outnumbered male migrants for the most part. A wide variety of policy recommendations were suggested in each report. The main issue is whether decentralized industrial policies can reduce rural-urban migration. All studies needed improved data and research.
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:220-1.On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly issued a statement regarding improving the status of women in the Secretariat. The statement opens with references to relevant UN and international documents which call for improvements in the status of women as well as to the UN's own goals for increasing the proportion of women in upper-level posts. The commitment of the Secretary-General to improve women's participation in policy-making positions is commended as essential to the achievement of the goals of the General Assembly. The General Assembly then urges the Secretary-General to take specific actions including the following: 1) increasing work flexibility to remove discrimination against staff members with family responsibilities, 2) placing greater priority on recruiting and promoting women to decision-making posts in areas where women are poorly represented, 3) taking advantage of the UN's reorganization to move more women into senior positions, 4) increasing the number of women from developing countries employed in the Secretariat, 5) developing a comprehensive policy to prevent sexual harassment in the Secretariat, and 6) presenting a status report on this policy to the Commission on the Status of Women and the General Assembly. Member states are urged to support these efforts by developing rosters of women who would be appropriate candidates for employment by the Secretariat.
[Resolution No.] 48/104. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women [20 December 1993].
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:217-9.On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly issued a Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women. The preamble to the Declaration refers to international human rights treaties and notes that the present resolution will strengthen the implementation process for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Violence against women is denounced as an obstacle to development, a violation of rights and fundamental freedoms, and a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between the sexes. Concern is also expressed for women in particularly vulnerable groups. The Declaration opens with a definition of "violence against women" as "any act of gender-based violence that results in . . . physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women. . .." Article 2 notes that these acts include domestic violence, sexual abuse, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation, rape, sexual harassment, forced prostitution, and violence perpetrated or condoned by any State. The third article states that women's rights are to include the right to life, to equality, to liberty and security of person, to equal protection under the law, to freedom from discrimination, to the highest attainable physical and mental health, to just and favorable employment conditions, and to protection from torture or inhuman punishment. Article 4 notes that States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition, or religion to avoid their obligations to elimination such violence. This article also contains additional specific measures which States should follow. The fifth article covers ways in which the UN can contribute to this goal by taking such actions as fostering international and regional cooperation, promoting meetings and seminars, fostering coordination within the UN system, and cooperating with nongovernmental organizations.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:161, 551-2.This document contains the text of the 1988 UN Resolution on Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat. This resolution urges the Secretary-General to deploy a full-time, senior-level employee (this employee should be a woman) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management in order to implement the action program for improving the status of women in the Secretariat by the 1990. The recommendation also requests that the Secretary-General report to the General Assembly and the Commission on the Status of Women on progress in the implementation of the action program.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . vii, 96 p.Working to balance population growth with socioeconomic development, the Government of India has had a population policy in place since 1951. Net reproduction rate of 1 is targeted to be met by the year 2000. This paper present India's population policy, and analyzes overall strategy for achieving population goals. While strategy is basically sound, there are, however, serious problems with program implementation. Information, education, and communication activities, as well as population education are reviewed. Non-governmental organizations and organized labor are then examined in the context of their roles in overall population strategy. Programmatic review continues and concludes with discussion of integrated maternal and child health/family planning components, improving the status and roles of women, and consideration of institutional framework, coordination, and management. Specific observations and recommendations are presented for each of these issues and topics, as well as for data collection and policy analysis, and the coordination of population assistance. Future UNFPA country programs should expand already initiated projects, and develop new ones aimed at providing a wider array of locally available contraceptives. While past assistance has focused upon health and family planning, future programs may encourage other areas of population activities. Examples of such activities include demographic research and training, research and action programs in women and development, and experimental approaches to population education.
In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1989; (27):13-29.This paper review progress over the past 5 years with respect to the 6 recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population 1984, which specifically address the situation of women. They include: 1) integrating women into development, 2) women's economic participation, 3) education, training, and employment, 4) raising the age at marriage, 5) the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility, and 6) the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Several important areas potentially relevant to population issues which were omitted from the Conference recommendations are identified and discussed--namely, the situation of women (in particular, older women, women who are the sole supporters of families, and women and migration) and the situation of women in times of severe economic adversity. Finally, progress made with respect to data on women is highlighted, and caution is advised with respect to continued calls for new data. In contrast to the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the recommendations are noted for implying an almost unresolvable conflict between women's biological and economic roles. However, it is pointed out that the goals of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women for full equality of men and women would require that the same choices be available to both sexes with respect to labor force participation. While it is too soon to have a clear perspective on the pace and direction of change during the past 5 years, the author finds it impossible to be optimistic about current trends because, in too many areas, progress regarding women has either stagnated or moved into reverse gear. The disappointing record is partially attributed to the tendency for policy makers to see the promotion of economic growth through sound economic policy and advancing the status of women as competing rather than complementary goals. (author's)
Development. 1988; (4):47-51.The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) met in March 1988 to discuss the importance of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on the contribution of women to human resource development. Industrialization has adversely affected women at all developmental stages. Although women have been an important economic resource, they are confined to sterotypic roles in the household and/or are hired as low cost labor. Gender inequalities are enhanced by industrialization. Female access to upper level and technical jobs is limited. Companies view women as secondary earners, and women tend to have poor self images and low confidence levels. Education and training for women is practically nonexistent thereby displacing them in the workplace as mechanization increases. Self-employed women have problems establishing and acquiring credit. Labor laws are not enforced by smaller industries. Women do not have a significant voice in collective bargaining or any support services to help decrease their work load. Women's World Banking (WWB) has helped to increase the self-sufficiency of women through credit and education. The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in India organizes the Women's Bank and the Bangladesh Graneen Bank. Women in several countries have organized trade unions. NGOs can serve as pressure groups to push for women's rights. Recommendations to UNIDO include the support of training programs, the support of local governmental human resource planning, the facilitation of female participation in industrial development, and the increase of UNIDO's effectiveness on a more local level. NGOs are urged to be "catalysts of change" through lobbying and motivational techniques; to be "watchdogs" at UN and other conventions in order to monitor and facilitate the progress of women through legal means; to spread issue-related information through mass media; to support training and other services, including credit mechanisms; to organize support services; and to pressure trade unions in support of female workers.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 11 p. (DP/RILM/11.)The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) from 2-4 September, 1985. The meeting was convened to discuss issues and policies concerning remittances by workers who had been going in large numbers from developing countries in the ESCAP region to West Asia. 3.6 million workers from ESCAP countries are now employed in West Asia, which creates both problems and opportunities. The massive labor flow has helped the labor-importing countries to overcome their domestic labor shortages and thus has removed a crucial bottleneck in the productive utilization of their revenues from the oil boom of the 1970s. It also helped the ESCAP countries by relieving their unemployment pressures. A satisfactory solution to the problems that arise in the process of large-scale migration and remittance flows may be found by means of cooperation between labor-supplying and labor-receiving countries. Remittances are not an unqualified gain. A large out-migration of skilled and professional workers can have adverse consequences for the economies of labor-exporting countries. Remittances can cause many distortions in the economy, including exorbitant rises in land values. The recent slowdown in labor demand in Weest Asia is due to a fall in oil revenues and completion of large-scale infrastructure and other construction projects. Further labor absorption in that region may not take place; a substantial return flow has already begun.
Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Expert Group Meeting on Remittances from International Labour Migration, 2-4 September 1985, Bangkok, Thailand [collected papers].
[Unpublished, 1985].  p.The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission For Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in Bangkok from 2-4 September, 1985. The titles of papers presented at the meeting include 1) Banking and Other Facilities For Remittances by Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East, 2) Remittances from International Labour Migration: A Case Study of Bangladesh, 3) Labour Migration and Remittances in Pakistan, 4) Remittances of Indian Migrants to the Middle East: An Assessment with Special Reference To Migrants From Kerala State, 5) An Assessment of West Asian Demand For Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region, 6) Labour Migration and Remittances in the Republic of Korea, 7) Issues in International Labour Migration Remittance, 8) Prospects or Joint Ventures and Other Forms of Economic Co-operation Between the Middle Eastern Oil Exporting Countries and the Labour Exporting Developing Countries in the ESCAP Region in the Context of Remittances From Labour Migration, 9) Overseas Employment and Remittances: A Case Study of the Philippines, 10) International Labour Migration and Remittances: Experience in Thailand, and 11) Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
Population and employment, statement made at the Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva 14 June 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The importance of the relationship between poverty and population was underlined by the World Population Conference of 1974 at which the World Population Plan of Action was adopted. The Plan states that population goals and policies are integral parts of social, economic and cultural development. Population programs can reinforce the effect of other development activities, and can attain their objectives only in the presence of certain basic developmental requirements. Among these are the availability of employment, improved social conditions and better income distribution. Development assistance has an important role to play in support of national efforts, but in order to assist effectively, basic-needs strategies for assistance policies and programs will have to be restructured and changed. The purposes and forms of assistance will have to be changed to provide for more support of local costs, recurrent expenditures, long-term commitments and more flexibility in applying donor policies and principles. The UNFPA is in the process of developing criteria for setting priorities for future allocation of resources. Developing countries should be made self-reliant as fully and rapidly as possible. The UNFPA will build up the capacity and ability of recipient countries to respond to their own needs. High priority will be given to supporting resource development and institution-building at the national level; to strengthening the managerial, administrative, and productive capabilities of recipient countries; and to exploring through research and pilot projects innovative approaches to population problems. In order to identify the developing countries with the most urgent need for population assistance, the Fund is proposing the use of a set of criteria.
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
[Unpublished] . 51 p.The purpose of the Evaluation Mission of the Project, Assistance to the Manpower Division, Ghana, was as follows: to evaluate the project activities with particular attention to the implementation of the project's immediate and longterm objectives; to identify the factors which may adversely influence the project implementation and the use of project outputs for national planning and manpower policies; and to describe the current institutional framework for manpower planning and policies. The Evaluation Mission took place between October 14 and November 2, 1974. This report covers the evaluation of the project (formulation of the project and project implementation, work plan, experts' working relationships, the project coordinator, the UN volunteers, the participation of national counterparts in the implementation of the project, the implementation of the fellowship program, the delivery of vehicles and other equipment, training of the national counterparts, and a seminar for government officials); and institutional framework for manpower planning in Ghana (the Ghana Manpower Board, the Committee of the Manpower Board, the meetings of the Board, the role of the manpower division, the manpower division responsibilities in relation to the project, and the future trend in the development of the manpower division). It was the impression of the Evaluation Mission that the Project as a whole is still not in full operation. Only limited progress has been made toward achieving the immediate objectives of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and International Labor Organization (ILO) assistance to the Manpower Division, Ministry of Economic Planning. There was general agreement that the implementation of the Project outlined in the work plan is not proceeding satisfactorily, and urgent action must be taken to improve the management of the project, to define accurately the administrative and executive responsibilities, and to strengthen the efficiency of day-to-day working activities. A serious shortcoming is the inherent inconsistency of the final Project Document. The links between the long range and the immediate objectives are, to a certain extent, represented by the training activities but have received no attention by the Project Coordinator. The Project's fellowship program is behind schedule. UN volunteers are not being well utilized. Detailed recommendations are included.
Confronting the population problem, statement made at 1983 Editors' Seminar at the United Nations, sponsored by the United Nations Association of the United States of America, United Nations, New York, 19 September, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 98)Growth and distribution of population carry important implications for resources and the environment, as well as for development generally. A shortage of food supply, increased labor force, urbanization and migration all pose staggering problems for the world. Other issues to be considered are energy, housing needs, as well as the vast array of raw materials which modern civilizations require. The demands on natural resources and the environment made by industrial development, combined with changes in population size and distribution create an issue of vital importance to developed and developing countries alike. With the aim of recognizing and working towards solutions to these and other problems, an International Conference on Population has been called in Mexico City in 1984. The Conference is expected to result in proposals for action in the national and international communities to produce the conditions necessary for continued decline in population growth and management of the problems which gorwth has brought about. The specific issues to be discussed at the Conference are briefly outlined.