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  1. 1

    International legal instruments relevant to women.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. African Centre for Women

    [Addis Ababa, Ethiopia], Economic Commission for Africa, 1995. [3], 69 p. (E/ECA/ACW/ILI/4(a)/94)

    In order to increase awareness of the legal rights of women and existing legal instruments protecting women, this document reprints the major international human rights conventions on women and a list of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Conventions concerning women workers. This document was created in the belief that women must be aware of their rights in order to understand and/or claim them and that the enhancement of legal literacy will promote women's rights as well as an understanding of how the law can be used as a tool for social change. The reprinted documents are 1) the UN Convention on the Political Rights of Women (with annexes listing the countries party to the convention, reservations, and countries where women could vote equally as of 1955); 2) the 1957 UN Convention on the Nationality of Married Women; 3) the 1964 UN Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages; 4) Chapter 24 of Agenda 21 (Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development Programme Area); 5) the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; 6) the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; 7) a list of nine ILO Conventions covering Women Workers; and 8) the Charter of Ratification of Conventions, which is a chart illustrating the ratification status of each convention by country.
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  2. 2

    Women, population and development trends since 1984.

    Ware H


    This paper review progress over the past 5 years with respect to the 6 recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population 1984, which specifically address the situation of women. They include: 1) integrating women into development, 2) women's economic participation, 3) education, training, and employment, 4) raising the age at marriage, 5) the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility, and 6) the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Several important areas potentially relevant to population issues which were omitted from the Conference recommendations are identified and discussed--namely, the situation of women (in particular, older women, women who are the sole supporters of families, and women and migration) and the situation of women in times of severe economic adversity. Finally, progress made with respect to data on women is highlighted, and caution is advised with respect to continued calls for new data. In contrast to the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the recommendations are noted for implying an almost unresolvable conflict between women's biological and economic roles. However, it is pointed out that the goals of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women for full equality of men and women would require that the same choices be available to both sexes with respect to labor force participation. While it is too soon to have a clear perspective on the pace and direction of change during the past 5 years, the author finds it impossible to be optimistic about current trends because, in too many areas, progress regarding women has either stagnated or moved into reverse gear. The disappointing record is partially attributed to the tendency for policy makers to see the promotion of economic growth through sound economic policy and advancing the status of women as competing rather than complementary goals. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Fertility and the family: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 45-73. (International Conference on Popualtion, 1984; Statements)

    This paper uses as its organizing principle 5 major themes which run through the sections of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) devoted to fertility and the family. The purpose of this paper it to assure that their discussion is comprehensive and that it reviews all the major research and policy concerns with respect to fertility and the family that have played an important role in the general debate about these issues since 1974. Summerized here are the contributions included in this volumen, as each deals with at least 1 of these issues. The 1st major theme focuses on fertility response to modernization as a facet of the interrelationship between population and development. Discussed are aspects of modernization leading to fertility increases, in particular the reduced incidence and shorter duration of breastfeeding, and those leading to fertility decline, namely the decline in the value of children as a source of labor and old-age support. Freedom of choice, information and education are the principal approaches within which childbearing decision making is discussed. Women's reproductive and economic activity during their life cycle, and the relationship of family types and functions to fertility levels and change are equally addressed. Finally, demographic goals and policy alternatives with respect to fertility change are discussed in terms of a number of policy options: family planning programs, economic incentives and disincentives and more global socioeconomic measures. Although primary attention is given to the problems and policies of developing countries, the special problems of certrain developed countries which view their fertility as too low are also considered. The issues raised in this paper are put forward as an aid to assist in the identification of emderging areas of policy concern and of fruitful new research directions.
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