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  1. 1

    A survey of research on population and employment under ILO's World Employment Programme. Paper No. 1.

    Demery L

    In: Seminar on population, employment and development in ASEAN countries, Bangkok, 1978: report and background papers. Bangkok, International Labor Office, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1979. 1-24.

    Reports on two components of the work carried out by the ILO's Population and Employment Project which began in 1922: a series of specific empirical studies in population and employment, and development of large scale economic-demographic planning models (the BACHUE series) based on the studies. The methodology of the studies stressed household level decision making, and integration of microlevel data with macro. The specific studies in the areas of labor force participation, fertility, demographic factors in household economy and government expenditure, migration, and the role of women and its implications for demography are summarized. The structure of the models and their use in simulating the effects of policies are described. A list of working papers and case studies is appended.
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  2. 2

    Familial roles and fertility: some labour policy aspects.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 69 p.

    This discussion presents a conceptual model indicating some of the established and hypothesized links between a number of labor laws and policies, in particular International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions, divisions of labor and resources by sex and age, familial roles, and fertility. The labor laws and policies considered include: legal protection of the young through adoption and execution of conventions regarding the minimum age for employment and thus the suppression of child labor; protection for the elderly and incapacitated through employment related social security systems; support for sexual equality; maternity protection legislation and assistance for workers with family responsibilities; and programs and laws to increase individual access to training, employment, and income generating opportunities in nonfamilial contexts. The paper outlines briefly the content and goals of some of the ILO conventions and programs which have a bearing on the conditions widely thought to be related to fertility decline, i.e., improved status of relatively deprived groups, women, children, the aged, and individual access to training, employment, and incomes. These changes are viewed in the context of their potential impact on family relatins. Thus, the 2nd section focuses on changing parental roles and the impacts of diminishing child labor upon the benefits and costs of bearing and raising children and increasing availability of social security benefits. Comparative empirical evidence of change in relation to fertility is mentioned. The next section examines sexual equality and in particular impacts of equality in the occupational sphere upon equality in the domestic domain and consequent effects upon reproduction. Evidence from different countries is reported. Changing kin roles is the subject of the 4th section. The impacts of social and spatial mobility on kin roles are indicated as well as the potential impacts upon role conflicts, individualism, and lower fertility. From a global perspective, fertility rates remain high in regions of the world where children continue to supply an important labor source to their parents and other elders and where women lack equality of opportunity in labor markets and remain dependent throughout life upon kin, husbands, and sons. In countries where old and young are protected by child labor laws and social security systems and the sexes are relatively equal with respect to training and employment, problems of fertility rates being perceived as too low are encountered and corresponding policies to lighten parental burdens and increase benefits of childbearing have been introduced.
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