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  1. 1

    Child care: meeting the needs of working mothers and their children. Introduction.

    Leonard A; Landers C

    In: Child care: meeting the needs of working mothers and their children, edited by Ann Leonard and Cassie Landers. New York, New York, SEEDS, 1991. 1-4. (SEEDS No. 13)

    The overwhelming majority of women in the world work to make a living. In 1985 the female labor force amounted to 32%. In the developing world industrialization, urbanization, migration, and recession in the 1980's forced women to seek employment. In Ghana over 29% of households are headed by women. In the US 57% of women with children under 6 are employed. In Bangkok, Thailand, 1/3 of mothers were back to work within the 1st year of after childbirth. In Nairobi, Kenya, 25% of mothers were working when their child was 6 months old. Availability of child care is often scarce: in Mexico City during the recession of 1982 mothers were forced to take their child to work, or left them with neighbors or older children. Grandmothers live in only 15% of homes and extended family members in only 10.8%. A serious problem arises when older siblings drop out of school to take care of the young. Organized child care programs vary: in India a nonformal preschool program covers 25% of children aged 3-6. However, inadequate resources often result in operation of only 3-4 hours a day, no provisions for breast feeding, and custodial care instead of nutrition and health benefits. In India mobile creches at construction sites provide child care for female workers. The International Labour Organization fostered the classic factory day care facility, but transportation distances and costs have diminished the popularity of these. The community-supported model in Ethiopia has been successful, and similar projects are tried in Mexico. Child care workers are paid little: in Ecuador trained preschool teachers make 40% of the salary of primary school teachers; and in the US in 1989 they were earning only 30% of the salary of elementary school teachers. Better options for child care are needed for the safe and normal development of children.
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  2. 2

    Economic and social aspects of population ageing in Argentina.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. x, 58 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/113)

    With approximately 12% of its 1980 population over age 60, Argentina's elderly constitute a higher-than-average proportion of the total population when compared to other developing countries. Governments are increasingly assuming greater responsibility for the care and support of the elderly. Accordingly, this paper describes the social and economic aspects of population ageing in Argentina, with the aim of providing planners with a better understanding of the social and economic implications of these demographic changes. Better understanding should result in the development of appropriate plans and policies targeted to the elderly. While the ageing process in Argentina is comparatively advanced when compared to other developing countries, ageing presently proceeds at a slower pace when compared to past trends. Slow ageing is also projected into the future. The elderly, themselves, have been ageing, and tend to live to a greater extent in urban areas. Elderly women when compared to men are more likely to live alone and in urban settings. Despite a stagnating economy, social gains and improvements in living conditions for the elderly have been largely sustained. The working-age population grew more slowly, however, over recent decades than the total population. The number of retirement system beneficiaries also grew over the period, with retirement benefits reported as the leading sources of income among the elderly. The health care system remains strained by the country's present economic situation, with care failing to reach all of the elderly. Wide societal agreement exists that the family should be a major care provider. With more than 1/2 of all persons aged 65 and over living in extended or mixed households, the family plans an important care and support function.
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