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  1. 1
    087716

    [Resolution No.] 47/93. Improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat [16 December 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-SEVENTH SESSION. 1993; 1:174-5.

    This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on improving the status of women in the Secretariat. The resolution expresses concern about failure to reach the goal of a 30% participation rate of women in posts subject to geographical distribution by the end of 1990 and cites deep concern that no women currently serve on the under-secretary-general level and only one serves at the assistant secretary-general level in the Secretariat. Thus, the resolution urges the Secretary-General to implement his action program to overcome the obstacles to the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat. The Secretary-General is also urged to give greater priority to the recruitment and promotion of women in posts (especially senior policy-level and decision-making posts) subject to geographical distribution. The opportunity posed by the reorganization of the UN and establishment of the Commission on Sustainable Development should be used to promote women to senior-level positions. In addition, the number of women employed from developing countries and other countries with an under-representation of women should be increased. Member States are also encouraged to increase the percentage of women in professional posts.
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  2. 2
    118643

    Women swell ranks of working poor.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    WORLD OF WORK. 1996 Sep-Oct; (17):4-7.

    Despite expanded global female employment (45% of women aged 15-64 years are economically active), women still comprise 70% of the world's 1 billion people living in poverty. Moreover, women's economic activities remain largely confined to low-wage, low-productivity forms of employment. A report by the International Labor Organization (ILO), prepared as a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and the World Summit for Social Development, identified discrimination in education as a central cause of female poverty and underemployment. Each additional year of schooling is estimated to increase a woman's earnings by 15%, compared to 11% for a man. At the workplace, women face inequalities in terms of hiring and promotion standards, access to training and retraining, access to credit, equal pay for equal work, and participation in economic decision making. In addition, even women in higher-level jobs in developing countries spend 31-42 hours per week in unpaid domestic activities. The ILO has concluded that increasing employment opportunities for women is not a sufficient goal. Required are actions to improve the terms and conditions of such employment, including equal pay for work of equal value, improved occupational safety and health, enhanced security in informal or atypical forms of work, guarantees of freedom of association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, and appropriate maternity protection and child care provisions. Finally, taxation and social welfare policies must be rewritten to accommodate the reality that women are no longer the dependent or secondary earner in families.
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  3. 3
    115458

    Women: challenges to the year 2000.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. [3], 96 p.

    A worldwide educational campaign has been launched in response to the discouraging results of the 1990 appraisal of implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000. As part of that campaign, this book uses statistical data compiled by the UN to describe the obstacles faced by women attempting to achieve equality in political participation and decision making; advancement in education, employment, and health; and participation in the peace process. The objective of this book is to raise the awareness of these issues among governments, nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the private sector, and individuals. Each of the first six chapters discusses one area of women's lives and ends by delivering a series of challenges to be met by the year 2000. Chapter 1 discusses discrimination against women (its roots; the lag between theoretical and practical advances; sex stereotypes; and discrimination in marriage, the family, and society) as well as its legal remedies. Chapter 2 defines women's health as a vital prerequisite to equality and covers such topics as the global health boom; women as primary health care providers; clean water, sanitation, and nutrition; the effects of economic crisis; maternal mortality; fertility and family planning; increasing malnutrition; AIDS; genital mutilation; and son preference. Chapter 3 looks at women's education as a key to empowerment and focuses on illiteracy, the effects of the economic crisis on education, and the special problems of rural women. Chapter 4 considers aspects related to acknowledgment of women's work such as the multiple roles of women, accounting for women's economic activity, households headed by women, women in agriculture, women in the informal sector, women suffering from exploitation in the formal sector, and the effects on women of economic adjustment programs. Chapter 5 examines women in political life, and Chapter 6 defines the role women play as victims of domestic and other violence and as advocates of peace. The concluding chapter provides a practical guide to obtaining further information from the UN.
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  4. 4
    087638

    [Resolution No.] 48/106. Improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat [20 December 1993].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:220-1.

    On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly issued a statement regarding improving the status of women in the Secretariat. The statement opens with references to relevant UN and international documents which call for improvements in the status of women as well as to the UN's own goals for increasing the proportion of women in upper-level posts. The commitment of the Secretary-General to improve women's participation in policy-making positions is commended as essential to the achievement of the goals of the General Assembly. The General Assembly then urges the Secretary-General to take specific actions including the following: 1) increasing work flexibility to remove discrimination against staff members with family responsibilities, 2) placing greater priority on recruiting and promoting women to decision-making posts in areas where women are poorly represented, 3) taking advantage of the UN's reorganization to move more women into senior positions, 4) increasing the number of women from developing countries employed in the Secretariat, 5) developing a comprehensive policy to prevent sexual harassment in the Secretariat, and 6) presenting a status report on this policy to the Commission on the Status of Women and the General Assembly. Member states are urged to support these efforts by developing rosters of women who would be appropriate candidates for employment by the Secretariat.
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  5. 5
    086170

    Resolution No. 43/103. Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat, 8 December 1988.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:161, 551-2.

    This document contains the text of the 1988 UN Resolution on Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat. This resolution urges the Secretary-General to deploy a full-time, senior-level employee (this employee should be a woman) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management in order to implement the action program for improving the status of women in the Secretariat by the 1990. The recommendation also requests that the Secretary-General report to the General Assembly and the Commission on the Status of Women on progress in the implementation of the action program.
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  6. 6
    086172

    Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (ILO No. 111).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:161.

    The Government of Cameroon ratified the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention on 13 May 1988. (full text)
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  7. 7
    075888

    The world's women 1970-1990: trends and statistics.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)

    5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
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  8. 8
    072876

    Structural adjustment and Caribbean women. Part Two. Women's coping strategies.

    Antrobus P

    CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1992 Jan-Mar; 4(1):8.

    Working class women have always been creative in developing methods of surviving when times get bad. Examples include: earning income from informal sector work, trading in foods stuffs and manufactured items, domestic work. They also alter their consumption patterns by cutting purchases and making do with less, and by planting kitchen gardens. Others relay on remittances from relatives who have migrated to developed nations. Most use multiple strategies to secure the well being of their children and family. These flexible behavior patterns are among the strengths of Caribbean working class women that allow them to deal the harsh realities of poverty. However these strengths have been turned around and used against these women by many governmental and international agencies. The fact that they are able to cope is used to support programs that only perpetuate the situation rather than helping these women to change their lives. These women are caught in a cycle of deprivation, powerlessness, acceptance of hardship, survival strategies, continuing exploitation and continuing deprivation. Because of the actions of such agencies there are 3 basic strategies that should be followed: (1) those designed to ensure day to day maintenance, (2) those designed to determine the elements necessary for longer term solutions, (3) those that challenge negative macroeconomic policies. Strategies must also be distinguished based on those that meet practical gender needs, and those that address strategic gender interests. The importance of this distinction can be seen in the austerity measures which have been central features of most adjustment policies. Policies must be formed in a holistic context that revolve around macro economic issues.
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  9. 9
    271438

    Contribution of women to human resource development in industry.

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization [UNIDO]

    Development. 1988; (4):47-51.

    The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) met in March 1988 to discuss the importance of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on the contribution of women to human resource development. Industrialization has adversely affected women at all developmental stages. Although women have been an important economic resource, they are confined to sterotypic roles in the household and/or are hired as low cost labor. Gender inequalities are enhanced by industrialization. Female access to upper level and technical jobs is limited. Companies view women as secondary earners, and women tend to have poor self images and low confidence levels. Education and training for women is practically nonexistent thereby displacing them in the workplace as mechanization increases. Self-employed women have problems establishing and acquiring credit. Labor laws are not enforced by smaller industries. Women do not have a significant voice in collective bargaining or any support services to help decrease their work load. Women's World Banking (WWB) has helped to increase the self-sufficiency of women through credit and education. The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in India organizes the Women's Bank and the Bangladesh Graneen Bank. Women in several countries have organized trade unions. NGOs can serve as pressure groups to push for women's rights. Recommendations to UNIDO include the support of training programs, the support of local governmental human resource planning, the facilitation of female participation in industrial development, and the increase of UNIDO's effectiveness on a more local level. NGOs are urged to be "catalysts of change" through lobbying and motivational techniques; to be "watchdogs" at UN and other conventions in order to monitor and facilitate the progress of women through legal means; to spread issue-related information through mass media; to support training and other services, including credit mechanisms; to organize support services; and to pressure trade unions in support of female workers.
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  10. 10
    051227

    Report of the Director-General. Part II: activities of the ILO, 1987.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, [ILO], 1988. x, 93 p. (International Labour Conference, 75th Session, 1988)

    Part II of the 1987 Report of the Director-General of the International Labor Organization (ILO) summarizes progress in terms of standard setting, technical cooperation, and information dissemination in labor relations, workers' and employers' activities, social security, the World Employment Program, and training. Also included is a report of the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories. The overall goals of the ILO's Medium-Term Plan for 1990-95 include the defense and promotion of human rights, the promotion of employment, continuous improvement of working conditions, and the maintenance and strengthening of social security and welfare. In view of problems arising from certain atypical forms of employment and new working time arrangements, the ILO's role in the organized, formal sectors of national economies will assumed increased importance. It will also be necessary for the ILO to increase its efforts to extend social protection to the unorganized, informal sectors of national economies and to promote the protection of groups such as women, migrants, and younger and older workers. The creation of productive employment and the alleviation of poverty remain the most significant challenges facing the ILO today. Among the milestones of 1987 were: 1) the 4th European Regional Conference, which addressed both the impact of demographic development on social security and the training and retraining implications of technological change; 2) the 74th Maritime Session, devoted to the profound economic and technical changes faced by seafarers; 3) the High-Level Meeting on Employment and Structural Adjustment; and 4) the 14th International Conference of Labor Statisticians, which adopted new standards designed to enhance the reliability of national labor statistics and their international comparability.
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  11. 11
    200824

    International standard classification of occupations.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1968. vii, 355 p.

    The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) reaches back some 20 years. ISCO has been developed to provide 1) a systematic basis for presentation of occupational data relating to different countries to facilitate international comparisons; and 2) an international standard classification system that countries may use in developing their national occupational classifications, or in revising their existing classifications, with the aim of achieving convertibility to the international system. Since many countries have made use of ISCO, either for reporting occupational data or as a basis for development of national occupational classification systems, a conversion table has been included in this edition. The ISCO classification structure has 4 levels: 1) major groups, 2) minor groups, 3) unit groups, and 4) occupational categories. The major groups include 1) professional, technical, and related workers; 2) administrative and managerial workers; 3) clerical and related workers; 4) sales workers; 5) service workers; 6) agricultural, animal husbandry and forestry workers, fishermen, and hunters; 7) production and related worked; 8) transport equipment operators; 9) laborers; 10) workers not classifiable by occupation; and 11) armed forces.
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  12. 12
    200109

    Asia and the Pacific annual review, 1984.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, [1985]. 52, [16] p.

    The 1984 review of the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) Regional Office in Asia and the Pacific attempts to bring out new developments, trends, and issues of the ILO programs and to illustrate broad issues with concrete and specific profiles whenever possible. The special theme of this year's issue is production and productivity improvement; this issue includes an account of ILO's assistance to governments and to employer's and workers' organization in productivity enhacement programs. The ILO program in 1984 has endeavored to assist member countries in their efforts to offset the adverse social and labor impact of the recent economic recession. Studies have been undertaken on labor migration, which in some countries may offer a relief to ailing economies. The energy sector has been another important area of concern--in particular, manpower, training, and the social implications of verious energy resources such as coal, biogas, electricity, and geothermal energy. Today workers must be equipped with the kind of vocational skills which will permit them to change occupations, often several times in their lifetime. Rural labor forces in developing countries, steeped in millenia of traditional values, must be able to face the technological advances of the 21st century. The ILO continues to provide assistance to its tripartite constituents, within the framework of the respective countries' priorities, in the development of human resources, raising living standards, improving working conditions and the environment, and the promotion of full employment. This year, for the 1st time, a full-time Adviser on International Labour Standards is providing countries advisory services on all aspects of ILO international standards setting activities. Further, new offices were opened in Colombo in November 1984 and Bejing in January 1985.
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  13. 13
    200064

    Asia and the Pacific annual review, 1985.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, [1986]. 61, [4] p.

    The International Labour Organization's (ILO) 1985 annual report for the Asia and the Pacific region summarizes the activities of a year spent in consolidating past programs and charting the course and direction of ILO's future programs. 2 major events of the year at which leading labor figures converged were the Tenth Asia and Pacific Labour Ministers' Conference and the Tenth Asian Regional Conference of the ILO. A number of recommendations, conclusions, and resolutions calling for measures to enhance the effectiveness of ILO programs and projects was suggested. A new ILO office in Beijing was set up in the beginning of the year in pursurance of ILO's policy of decentralization, bringing to 10 the number of ILO representative offices in the region. The ILO's technical assistance programs continue to promote social and economic development through human resources development, the improvement of living and working conditions, job creation, and the development of social institutions. The dynamism and diversity of the region made an impact on ILO activities during 1985 affecting such areas as technology, migration, and productivity. Programs to alleviate the plight of specific disadvantaged groups such as women, young workers, and disabled persons have also been actively pursued. This annual review of ILO activities provides information on the scope and depth of ILO's multifaceted work in this region.
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  14. 14
    033848

    Population change and development in the ECWA region

    Caldwell P; Caldwell JC

    In: Aspects of population change and development in some African and Asian countries. Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1984. 43-56. (CDC Research Monograph Series no. 9)

    This paper examines the relationship between economic development and demographic change in the 13 states of the Economic Commission for West Asia (ECWA) region. Demographic variables considered include per capita income, proportion urban, proportion in urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants, literacy among those over 15 years, and literacy among women. Unweighted rankings on these variables were added to produce a development ranking or general development index. Then this index was used to investigate the relationship between development and individual scores and rankings for various demographic indices. The development index exhibited a rough fit with the mortality indices, especially life expectancy at birth. Mortality decline appears to be most closely related to rise in income. At the same income level, countries that have experienced substantial social change tend to exhibit the lowest mortality, presumably because of a loosening in family role patterns. In contrast, the relationship between development and fertility measures seemed to be almost random. A far closer correlation was noted between the former and the general development index. It is concluded that economic development alone will not reduce fertility. Needed are 2 changes: 1) profound social change in the family and in women's status, achievable through increases in female education, and 2) government family planning programs to ensure access to contraception.
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  15. 15
    031334

    Protection of working mothers: an ILO global survey (1964-84).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.

    This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
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  16. 16
    268191

    Female employment and fertility in developing countries

    Brazzell JF

    In: Quantitative approaches to analyzing socioeconomic determinants of Third World fertility trends: reviews of the literature. Project final report: overview, by Indiana University Fertility Determinants Group, George J. Stolnitz, director. [Unpublished] 1984. 79-91.

    Simple no-work/work distinctions are an unreliable basis for estimating causal linkages connecting female employment/work-status patterns to fertility. World Fertility Survey (WFS) data show about 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 child differentials for over 20, 10-19, and under 10 years marital duration grouss respectively, for women employed since marriage. Effects on marriage seem strongest in Latin America and weakest in Asia. Controlling for age, marital duration, urban-rural residence, education, and husband's work status. But from the results of a number of WFS and other studies, it seems relationships of work status and fertility are difficult to confirm beyond directional indications, even in Latin America. A UN study using proximate determinants such as contraception and work status including a housework category indicated differentials in contraceptive practice were not significant net of control for education. Philippine data indicates low-income employment might increase fertility by decreasing breastfeeding, while WFS data from 5 Asian countries indicated pre-marital work encourages increased marriage age, without being specific about effects. Also, female employment must affect a large population to have a real impact on aggregate fertility, since female labor force activity is likely to change slowly if at all. Data presently available do not cover micro-level factors that may be important, such as effects of work on breastfeeding, nor do they lend themselves to examination by multi-equation analysis. More work is needed to isolate effects of work-status attributes like male employment, and to analyze intra-cohort mid-course fertility objective changes, as well as new theoretical process models such as competing time use and maternal role incompatibility.
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  17. 17
    197525

    Abstracts of current studies: the World Bank Research Program.

    Pal NR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1981. 210 p.

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  18. 18
    267358

    Familial roles and fertility.

    Oppong C

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and familiy. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 321-51. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This paper presents a conceptual model indicating some of the established and hypothesized links between a number of labor laws and policies, in particular International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions, divisions of labor and resources by sex and age, familial roles and fertility. Brielfy outlined are the content and goals of some of the ILO conventions and programms that have a bearing on the conditions widely thought to be related to fertility decline. These include improved status of relatively deprive groups, such as women and children, and individual access to training, employment and incomes. These changes are viewed in terms of their potential impact on family relations, including changing parental roles and costs of bearing and raising children in view of the impact of diminishing child labor, and the increasing availability of social security benefits. Another aspect is sexual equality, in particular the impact of equality in the occupational sphere on equality in the domestic sphere and the consequent effects on reproduction. In addition, the impacts of social and spatial mobility are indicated and the potential effects on role conflicts, individualism and lower fertility. A thrust of the paper is to emphasize the critical intervening nature of changing familial roles, which have been neglected, both in labor reports and related activities as well as in the documentation and policy-making related to fertility. Micro-evidence from a variety of cultural contexts shows how changes and differences in allocations of tasks and resources and status benefits between kin, parents and offspring, wives and husbands are associated with changes and differences in fertility-related aspirations and patterns of regulation. Finally, the discussion serves to underline the pervasive and profound nature of the potential impacts of divisions of labor and employment policies on fertility levels, demonstrating that changes in familial roles and relations are central to this process of linkage. Thus, the need is made apparent for more knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of change in this area at the micro-level and in a variety of cultural areas, if government policies and programms are to achieve their specific goals with respect both to employment and demographic policies.
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  19. 19
    026268

    Concise report on the world population situation in 1983: conditions, trends, prospects, policies.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)

    The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
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  20. 20
    028004

    Population, development, family welfare. The ILO's contribution

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1984. 56 p.

    This booklet describes the origins, scope, purpose, achievements and perspectives of the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programme since its inception in the early 1970s as an integral part of the World Employment Programme. Its focus is in the area where population issues and labour and employment concerns intersect. The booklet was produced on the occasion of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, but is also intended as a source of information on ILO's population activities for the general reader. Topics covered include the integration of population and development planning, institution building, women's roles and demographic issues, fertility, labor force, migration and population distribution, and motivation through education. (EXCERPT)
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  21. 21
    267097

    Population and employment, statement made at the Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva 14 June 1976.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1976]. 8 p.

    The importance of the relationship between poverty and population was underlined by the World Population Conference of 1974 at which the World Population Plan of Action was adopted. The Plan states that population goals and policies are integral parts of social, economic and cultural development. Population programs can reinforce the effect of other development activities, and can attain their objectives only in the presence of certain basic developmental requirements. Among these are the availability of employment, improved social conditions and better income distribution. Development assistance has an important role to play in support of national efforts, but in order to assist effectively, basic-needs strategies for assistance policies and programs will have to be restructured and changed. The purposes and forms of assistance will have to be changed to provide for more support of local costs, recurrent expenditures, long-term commitments and more flexibility in applying donor policies and principles. The UNFPA is in the process of developing criteria for setting priorities for future allocation of resources. Developing countries should be made self-reliant as fully and rapidly as possible. The UNFPA will build up the capacity and ability of recipient countries to respond to their own needs. High priority will be given to supporting resource development and institution-building at the national level; to strengthening the managerial, administrative, and productive capabilities of recipient countries; and to exploring through research and pilot projects innovative approaches to population problems. In order to identify the developing countries with the most urgent need for population assistance, the Fund is proposing the use of a set of criteria.
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  22. 22
    016873

    Report on the world social situation.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1982. 210 p. (E/CN.5/1983/3; ST/ESA/125)

    This report, the 10th in a series dating from 1952, notes in a brief introductory statement a series of effects on the world social situation of the poor state of the world economy. The 1st major section, on living conditions and aspirations in time of renewed economic stress, contains discussions of equity and the elimination of poverty in the developing world; social justice and distribution in industrial countries; changes in family size, life cycles, and roles; the recent trends and issues in social security systems; employment issues and underemployment and unemployment in developing and developed countries, trends in international migration, and the growth of a parallel economy. A section on changes in elements of well-being analyzes trends in specific domains of social life and areas of social concern, including food and nutrition, health, education and training, working conditions, housing, and the environment. The 3rd section focuses on some major aspects of the evolution of contemporary societies that have direct effect on social programs: participation, agrarian reforms, science and technology, disarmament and development, and civil and political rights. Throughout the work, the emphasis is more on identifying regional trends and developments than on discussing situations in particular countries.
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  23. 23
    266297

    Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.

    This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
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  24. 24
    013158

    The ILO's population and labour policies programme in the context of strategies to achieve population goals.

    Sarma MT

    [Unpublished] 1982. 5 p.

    This paper reviews the population and labor policies program of the International Labor Organization (ILO) with special reference to activities in Asia and the Pacific region. Since its foundation the ILO has been active in areas affected by population trends such as employment, migration, human resource development, strategies for meeting basic needs, and improving the role and status of women and social security. The tripartite structure of the ILO, in which the representatives of workers' organizations have an equal voice with governments and employers, has always meant that the ILO has been quick to respond to the problems faced by the people. Activities of the ILO's Population and Labor Policies Program may be broadly distinguished in 3 distinct parts. The research activities can be identified as 1 part, while the operational activities divide into 2 components, i.e., education and welfare on the 1 hand and the field level policy and research dimension on the other. The ILO's population and labor policies program was first introduced in Asia where most countries had embarked on national population programs. The ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of such activities in selected countries. The concept of an ILO population oriented program gradually evolved and a regional labor and population team was created. The education/welfare dimension is primarily concerned with family economics and family welfare issues presented to individuals in the work place. This aspect of the work program intends to realize increasing participation of women. The new policy and research activities, coming after the World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974, are designed to help countries of the region identify socioeconomic strategies which can contribute to the goals of population change along with improvements in family welfare. A major component of the global research program of the ILO that is relevant for the present Regional Seminar relates to the "Demographic Change and the Role of Women." This research program is designed to help policymakers in developing countries with information on the eocnomic contributions women are actually making and providing insights into the causes and effects of changes in women's roles. The studies using household sample surveys will collect information for a fairly large number of households on what people in the household are doing, demographic information, socioeconomic information, socioanthropological information, and information on various aspirations and expectations. The 3rd type of studies envisaged will deal with the functioning of urban labor markets.
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  25. 25
    011482

    Further thoughts on the definitions of economic activity and employment status

    Blacker JGC

    Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.

    The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
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